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Full text of "The gallery of modern British artists; consisting of a series of engravings from works of the most eminent artists of the day, including Messrs. Turner, Roberts, Harding, Clennel, Dewint, Austin, Messrs. Stanfield, Bonnington, Prout, Cattermole, C. Fielding, Cox, &c. &c"

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Messrs. TURNER, 


COX, &c. &c. 






LoN UON : 







Mr. Roberts is an instance of those rare combinations of talent, in 
whose works profound art, and the most scientific display of detail, 
are equally perceptible ; not as svibservient the one to the other, but as 
co-operating to produce a perfect whole. He exhibits the breadth and 
magnificence of architectural subjects with a precision which satisfies 
the beholders of their truth, and, at the same time, with a degree of 
taste and feeling which prevents their taking the character of a dry 
elevation. In the piece before us, he has selected a highly impressive 
aspect of the splendid monastic pile of long past centuries, which, whilst 
it is a valuable lesson to the student in historical architecture, is not the 
less admirable for its rich, reposing, and appropriate pictorial effect. 

Kelso Abbey, situate in Roxburghshire, Scotland, is well deserving of 
attention for its venerable antiquity, and the purity of its Saxon archi- 
tecture. A very considerable portion of it has resisted the ravages of 
time, and the desolations of Border wars. It was founded by David I., 
king of Scotland, in 1128. It is built in the form of a Greek cross; 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. John the EvangeHst ; and endowed 
with immense possessions and privileges. The pious prince David, 
before he succeeded to the throne, had planted a colony of monks of 
the order called Tyronensis, at Selkirk ; they were afterwards removed 



to Roxbm-gh, and ultimately to Kelso, where, for their accommodation, 
David caused to be built the magnificent Abbey and Monastery, in the 
Saxon style, by artists brought fiom various countries. 

The Tyronensian monks ai-e said to have been particularly attentive 
to agriculture and the arts, and to have maintained within their monas- 
teries husbandmen and mechanics, the profits of whose labour formed 
part of the funds of the establishment. Many persons of distinction 
have lield the office of abbot ; among others, James Stuart, natural son 
of James V. 

Although this venerable structure was in a great measure defaced 
and demolished, in consequence of the civil wars and religious struggles 
that prevailed, especially at the period of the Reformation, yet the 
principal part of it was probably early used as a Protestant place of 
worship ; and in the seventeenth century it underwent considerable 
additions and repairs, to fit it for a Presbyterian church. From this 
time it was the parish church till the year 1771, when a false alarm being 
spread, during public worship, that the building was falling, it was never 
again used. This alarm was the more easily excited as there was 
previously a popular fear, grafted on a traditional prophecy of Thomas 
the Rhymer, that the Abbey would fall when at the fullest. From this 
time the building was neglected, till the late William, duke of Roxburgh, 
caused an unsightly aisle, and a portion of a wall, both of modern 
erection, to be taken down ; and subsequently many other deformities 
of a like nature have been removed, by which means the transept, and 
many windows and side arches of the original building, arc displayed. 
The central tower of the Abbey was originally about ninety feet in 
height, but is now only seventy. The arches are clustered with admi- 
rable strength and beauty, and those which support the lantern are truly 

Many illustrious persons have been interred in Kelso Abbey, includ- 
ing the only son of King David I. Here also Henry HI. of England 
and his queen met Alexander HI. of Scotland and his queen, on which 
occasion great pomp and splendour were displayed. In IdGO, James III. 
was crowned in this Abbey. 

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This is a subject in which the eager and vivid pencil of Mr. Stanfield 
revels in its happiest mood. A boldly-marked foregromid, flashing with 
brilliant lights, and deepening with powerfully opposed shadows — the 
strong, gay-, busy effect of open daylight — and a finely relieved distance 
of magnificent contour, almost losing itself in the fairy tints of the 
atmosphere — the whole enlivened by well-introduced figures, themselves 
part and parcel of the scene they contribute to individualise — and 
crowned by a sky, light and full of motion, but wayward — apt parent of 
the deep-toned streak which spreads along the sea-line. 

One of the chief pleasures, perhaps, in beholding a picture 
is the associations connected with the subject, either historical or other- 
wise ; and, certainly, the present one is not devoid of interest in this 
particular, as we shall endeavour to shew in the following brief sketch. 

St. Michael's Mount is a very singular pyramidical insulated mass of 
rocks, situate in the bay to which it gives name, on the southern coast 
of Cornwall. It stands opposite to the market-town of Marazion, and is 
connected with it by a naiTow causeway of pebbles, passable at low 
water. Ancient traditions inform us that the Mount was formerly 
attached to the shore and surrounded with trees, but these are not 
entitled to much credit, for Dr. Berger has very satisfactorily shewn 
that, from the position of the strata, the Mount could not have been 
separated from the main-land except by some extraordinary convulsion, 
far beyond the reach of tradition or historical record. 

On tlie top of the Mount is a Chapel, and the total height from the 
level of the sea to the platform of the tower of this chapel is 231 feet. 
The circumference of the island is rather more than a mile, and it con- 
tains in the whole about seven acres of land. At its base is a level piece 
of gi'omid, where there is a small pier and wharf, and near it a village 
consisting of about eighty houses, the inhabitants of which are chiefly 
engaged in the pilchard fishery. 


It has been supposed by several writers, and with great probabihty, 
that this was the island called " Ictis," mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, 
whither the tin, when refined and cast into cubic ingots by the Britons, 
who dwelt near the promontory of Belerium, was carried in carts over 
an isthmus only dry at low water. 

A priory of Benedictine monks, afterwards changed to Gilbertines, 
was founded on St. Michael's Mount previously to the year 1044, when 
King Edward the Confessor gave to the monks there dwelling the 
Mount with all its buildings and appendages. Pope Gregory, in the 
year 1070, granted a remission of a third of their penance to all persons 
who should visit the Church of St. Michael-at-the-Mount with obla- 
tions and alms. This grant was discovered in an old register of the 
convent about the year 1440, and the information, which appears to 
have been published with much diligence in all parts of the kingdom, 
occasioned, as might have been expected, a great resort of pilgrims to 
St. Michael's Mount. 

The Mount has been several times an object of contention, during 
the various civil wars which have raged in England ; and there are many 
remarkable circumstances connected with its history. Among these is, 
that Perkin Warbeck — who represented himself to be Richard, the 
younger son of King Henry IV., supposed to have been murdered in 
the tower — having landed with a party of his friends from Ireland in 
Whitesand Bay, in September 1498, was admitted into the castle by the 
monks, who were favourable to the house of York ; he immediately put 
the fortifications in a state of defence ; and soon afterwards marching 
with his forces to Bodmin, he left his wife, the Lady Katherine Gordon, 
at the Mount, as a place of security. She remained there until after the 
unsuccessful termination of his enterprise, when King Henry sent the 
Lord Daubeney to bring her thence to the royal presence. The king is 
said to have taken compassion on her misfortunes, and to have granted 
her a competent maintenance, which she enjoyed till her death. 

About tlic time of the Restoration the St. Aubyn family became 
possessed of the Mount by purchase from the Bassets. The ancient 
monastic and castellated buildings with which the sunmiit of the rock is 




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entirely occupied, forms the occasional residence of Sir John St. Aubyn, 
Bart., the present proprietor, by whom and by his father many alterations 
and improvements have been made. The chapel also has been newly 
fitted up in the Gothic style. " On the top of the tower, in one of the 
angles, are the remains of a moor-stone lantern, kept," says Grose, " in all 
likelihood, by the monks, who had a tithe of the fishery, to give direction 
to the fishermen in dark and tempestuous weather. This is vulgarly 
called St. Michael's Chair, and will admit only one person to sit in it. 
The ascent to it is dangerous ; but it is sometimes ascended out of a 
foolish conceit, that whosoever sits therein, whether man or woman, 
will henceforth have the mastery in domestic affairs." 



Mr. Cattermole has found in Warwick Castle a rich subject for his 
romantic pencil. It is the idealization of feudal security and reposing 
strength ; and the accompaniments harmonise exquisitely with the 
characteristics of the building. Wildly-growing trees border and over- 
hang the river, which, broken into successive cascades, rushes by the 
ponderous walls and aspiring towers, losing itself in the shady depths 
of the more distant foliage. The sunny play of Mght and shadow is 
admirably managed, and imparts all but motion to the umbrageous 
ornaments of this picturesque scene. 

The Castle, an interesting portion of which is shewn in om* engi'a\ing, 
is one of the noblest of these structures now remaining in England. It 
is near to the town, on the northern bank of the Avon, and stands on 
the solid rock nearly 100 feet higher than the level of the river, although 
on the north side it is even with the town, and has a charming prospect 
from the terrace. Across the river, communicating with the castle, there 
was formerly a stone bridge of twelve arches, which is now gone to 



decay ; and by a stone-work dam the water forms a cascade under the 
castle walls. The face of the building to the river is irregular ; but has 
a grand effect, rising above the rock on which it stands, and to which it 
seems miited rather by the hand of nature than by human art. It is not 
known with accuracy at what period a castle was first built on this spot, 
but the foundation is supposed to have taken place by Ethelfleda, 
daughter of King Alfi-ed, and queen of Mercia in the tenth century. 
William the Conqueror, who considered the castle of great importance, 
enlarged it, put it into complete repair, and gave it to the custody of 
Henry de Newburg, on whom he bestowed the earldom of Warwick. 
During the barons' wars it was nearly demolished by GifFord, governor 
of Kenilworth Castle, but it was soon afterwards rebuilt. By James I. 
this castle was granted to Sir Fulke Greville, afterwards Lord Brooke, 
who expended 20,000/. in its reparation. During the Civil Wars of 
Charles I. it was converted into a garrison for the Parliament, and 
besieged by Lord Northampton. In the reign of Charles II. Robert, 
earl of Brooke, embellished the whole building, and particularly fitted up 
the state apartments. 

The entire castle consists of a connecting series of walls, towers, and 
other buildings, sun-ounding a large irregular court. The approach to 
it is calculated to produce the most striking effect. Having passed 
through the outer gate, a broad and winding path, cut through the solid 
rock, confines the eye and exercises the fancy, till a hundred yards are 
trodden over with increasing expectation. In drawing towards the 
termination of the rocky path, the lofty, massive, and venerable towers 
rise progi-essively to the gaze ; and on proceeding a little farther, they 
stand ranged in an embattled line, unspeakably august and commanding. 
On tlie left is a tower termed Cajsar's, an elevation concerning the date 
of which no trace remains, although it is still in the most j)erfect state of 
strength and repair. To the right is the tower named after the legendary 
champion of the castle, the redoubted giant Guy. Its walls are 10 feet 
thick and 128 feet high. It was built by Thomas Beauchamp, earl of 
Warwick, in the latter part of the fourteenth century. The entrance to 
the iimcr court is flanked by embattled walls, richly clothed with ivy; 

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and the deep moat, now dry in security, and containing at its base a 
velvety. path, is hned with various shrubs, and ornamented with trees of 
vigorous and noble growth. The disused moat is crossed by a stone 
arch where was formerly the drawbridge ; and the entrance is by double 
towers, through a series of passages, once big with multiphed dangers 
for the intruder. In the great court, to which the visitor passes, the 
display is truly magnificent. The area is now fertile in soft and well- 
cultivated greensward ; but spread around are the remains of mighty 
fortificatiojis, raised in turbulent ages, now long since passed away. 
The outlines of these relics are perfect, and none of the battlements 
have been ruined by time. 

The interior of this august fabric surpasses the expectations raised 
by its exterior ; for with the ponderous towers and ramparts of stone, 
we associate only ideas of chivalric hardihood and unpolished baronial 
pride. In the arrangement and decoration of the halls, art and good 
taste have combined to produce splendour and elegance ; whilst every 
effort has, at the same time, been made to preserve the ancient castel- 
lated outhnes of the edifice. The gi-and suite of apartments extends 
in a right line 333 feet, and are furnished in a chaste but magnificent 
manner. They contain many choice original paintings ; and in a gallery 
is some cimous armovxr, painted glass, and other relics. 

The park attached to the castle is very extensive, and finely orna- 
mented with wood and water. The gardens and pleasure-gi-ovmds are 
laid out with great taste ; and a broad gravel-walk conducts to a green- 
house, a spacious building erected purposely for the reception of a large 
antique vase, which is considered one of the noblest specimens of ancient 
art now in England. It is of white marble, and of a circular form, 
sufticiently capacious to hold 163 gallons, and is placed on a square 
pedestal, upon which it revolves by means of a mortice and tenon. 
This exquisite antique was found (as stated by a Latin inscription) at 
the bottom of a lake not far from Adrian's villa, near Tivoli, about 
twelve or fourteen miles from Rome. 

There are usually a great number of visitors, who are aUowed to 
inspect the Castle and its numerous curiosities. 



This magnificent pile is judiciously exhibited by the artist in its full 
effect of length and greatness. The lights and shades are skilfully 
disposed so as to bring fully into observation the disposition of the 
different portions of the building. Any appearance of oppressive weight 
attendant on the object which fills so large a portion of the picture, 
is, however, avoided by the magical delicacy — the almost airiness of 
tint which prevails. The effect given to the other parts are in complete 
harmony with the stately character of the edifice. The distant hills, 
crowned with wood, recede gently into the full and warm sunshine 
of the atmosphere. A stream of light flows into the foregromid, beauti- 
fully reheved by the deeper tints to the left. A rich and calm noontide 
appearance of repose reigns over the whole. 

The architecture of Jedburgh Abbey is pecuharly interesting, as 
offering a distinct specimen of the mode in which the formation of the 
pointed arch has obviously resulted from the manner of working the 
circular or Saxon contour. The Abbey is situated on the west side 
of the river Jed, near its junction with the Tiviot, and was founded by 
David I. in the twelfth century, for Canons Regular, brought from 
Beauvais. The church, which alone remains entire, is used for reUgious 
puiposes, and has had much of its picturesque effect destroyed by the 
clumsy architecture of the modern part. The west end, which is in 
ruins, is rich and striking, the arches of the body are pointed, but at the 
end is a richly ornamented Saxon door. The whole building, when 
complete, formed a square, of which the north side was the church, the 
east was the cloister, the south the refectory, and the west contained the 
other offices. The area, which was used as a cemetry, is now the garden 
of the manse. These magnificent ruins are seen with the greatest effect 
from the retired banks of the Jed, the sylvan stream which was the scene 
of Thomson's poetic reveries, and whose banks are well suited to such 

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inspirations. They are mostly hold, lofty, overspread with wild bi'ush- 
wood, or crowned with plantations, and ui some of their rocky recesses 
are frequently found large natural caverns. 



A STUDY of river, or rather fishing, craft ; the locality is identified by the 
tower on the distant terra jirma. The vessels and the animated groups 
they contain are appropriate, and pleasingly exhibited. The mirror-like 
transparency of the quiet water is well expressed ; and full effect is given 
to the broad reflection of every object on its motionless expanse. 

The scene is taken near to Dort, which was formerly one of the most 
considerable towns in Holland, and is still eminent for its wealth. An 
important object of commerce here is the timber brought in immense 
floats down the Rhine, and either exported to England, Spain, and 
Portugal, or prepared for different uses in the saw mills which skirt the 
town. The sale of one of these floats occupies several months, and 
frequently produces 350,000 florins, or more than j630,000 sterUng. 



Every part of this picture indicates that it is a foreign scene. The young 
artist, with much good taste, has seized, not on the splendid or highly 
picturesque, but on the characteristic. The antique fountain, pouring its 
streams from the mouths of sphinxes — the massy stone-work of the 



basins wliich receive the fluid — the broad-corniced houses, — their very 
dilapidation, combine to exhibit the place of resort in an Italian town. 
The costumes and occupations of the figures are appropriate ; and the 
effect of the whole picture, in the disposition of its broad hghts and 
shades, happy and brilhant. 

In the time of the Roman kings this was a well-established and 
large town. It is situated in the central part of Italy, twenty miles 
south-east of Rome, on the road to Naples. It is built on the declivity 
of Mount Artimisio, and commands a delightful view of the surrounding 
country. Veletri was taken by Ancus Martins, fourth king of the 
Romans, and re-taken by the Volscians under the command of Coriolanus. 
The Romans took it again some time after, and, removing the inhabitants, 
filled it Avith a Roman colony. Being the seat of the Octavian family, it 
had the honour of giving birth to Augustus. Though pleasantly situated, 
it is an ill-built and irregular town, the streets being narrow and dirty ; 
while the houses bear in general the appearance of decay. It contains, 
however, several detached buildings entitled to notice, such as the palazzo 
G'lnett'i, with its elegant front, and the palazzo Borgio, with its fine col- 
lection of paintings and antiques. The town-house is a good building, 
and several of the fountains in the place are handsome. The chief square 
contains a bronze statue of Pope Urban VIII. by the celebrated Bernini. 



Another interesting piece of continental town scenery; consisting of 
groups of irregular and anticjuated masses of building, and a boldly 
constructed wooden bridge, wliich bestrides the river. The effect is 
adinirat)ly managed, so as to give tiie idea of height and magnitude to the 
principal objects. Tlic figures on the bridge, and the colossal statue of 
St. l*cter which occupies the top of one of tlie piers, are finely relieved 

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by the sky against which tliey are seen ; and the more distant objects — 
rising hills and fohagC' — fill, without confusion, the opening of the 
principal arch. The broken fall of the water is vigorously expressed; 
and breadth, boldness, and decision, generally characterise the piece. 

LaufFenburg is a small town upon the Rhine, situate midway between 
Hauenstein and Seckingcn, in Switzerland, being two leagues from each, 
and four leagues west of Waldshut, one of the four foi'est-towns where the 
Black Forest commences. The mountains of Jura, on entering the river 
at LaufFenburg, divide into two parts, which are connected by a wooden 
bridge of bold construction, built upon stone piers, as represented in the 
engraving. About three hundred and thirty paces above the bridge, the 
Rhine rolls over large masses of stone, and as it approaches the bridge 
becomes more and more intersected by the rocks on each side, between 
which it rushes with impetuous force, surmounting eveiy obstacle. 

Between LaufFenburg and Waldshut is the Albe, a small river which 
runs into the Rhine, and upon which is the forge of Alhbrug, which 
formerly belonged to the Abbey of St. Blaise and employed a great 
number of hands. The valley of the Albe near it, is not without attrac- 
tions, and abounds with picturesque situations ; several Roman coins 
have been found in the environs. 



Foreign, characteristic scenery — the place of concourse of human beings. 
Few subjects, as a class, are more interesting than these. The artist has 
here selected a group of buildings which admirably displays the peculiar- 
ities of domestic architecture in walled towns — or taken from the customs 
of walled towns ; story piled on story, the very roof honey-combed into 
inhabited apartments up to the topmost ridge, exhibiting the value of 
ground in such circumscribed situations ; — telling also a tale of change 


and decaj', of ancient ornament falling into ruinous dilapidation, indicative 
oftlie altered fortunes of a city, once the residence of aristocratic splen- 
dour. Behind the houses rises in gigantic magnificence the church of St. 
Wulfran, decorated in the light and elegant taste of the latter days of the 
pointed style, abounding in the open filigree work and slender tracery 
which distinguish so many of our finest churches in the West of England. 
This town owes its origin to a country-house of the Abbot St. Riquior. 
Hugh Capet, finding that the house was advantageously situated, drove 
away the abbot and his monks, fortified the place, and gave the command 
of it to his son-in-law, with the title of count. Next to Amiens, it is the 
largest town in Picardy. It is situated in a pleasant and fruitful valley, 
watered by different branches of the river Somme, which flows through 
the town and divides it into two parts. Including the suburbs, it contains 
about 38,000 inhabitants. Many of the houses of wood, and others with 
a mixture of brick and stone, are built in grotesque forms, and present a 
singidar appearance. It is in some measure fortified, and was at one 
time the seat of a provincial court and smaller tribunals ; it had also an 
admiralty court and a salt oflSce. It contained, moreover, a collegiate 
church, an abbey and fifteen cloister's, and fourteen parish churches, — a 
commanderie of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, and a college with a 
public library. At present it is the station of the sub-prefecture of an 
arrondissemcnt of the same name, and has a central school. The hand- 
somest public building in the place is the Foundling Hospital. Its facade 
can only be seen from the ramparts, which constitute a promenade for 
the inhabitants, and contain avenues of trees furnishing a pleasant shade. 
Another promenade, in the form of a quay, extends along the Somme, on 
the right bank of which there is a fountain of mineral water, and at a 
short distance, public baths. 

As the tide of the river rises to the height of six feet, heavy laden 
boats, and vessels of eighty tons burden, can be worked quite close to the 
town. The exports consist partly of articles manufactured in the town, 
and partly of grain, flax, hemj), and oil, which the surrounding country 
produces in great abundance, and which go, for the most part, to Brittany 
and Bayonnc. 

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The most important manufactures are cotton and linen cloths, velvet, 
pack-sheet, sail-cloth, cordage, soap, and glue. There are, besides a 
great cotton spinning establishment, several bleaching grounds, dye 
houses, &c. The celebrated manufacture of fine woollen cloth was set on 
foot here in 1665, by a Dutchman of the name of Van Robais, who ob- 
tained extraordinary privileges from Louis XIV. and the French Govern- 
ment. For a long time the quality of these cloths was unrivalled, but 
under the successors of Van Robais they have deteriorated. 



A CHASTE and finely-arranged subject, redolent of the effect of Claude 
combined with the classic elegance and repose of Poussin. The character 
of the landscape is Italian, and its principal object a ruined pile of the 
pure architecture of ancient days. A river meandering in long 
reaches gives extent to the distance, and the subdued light of the setting 
sun, gleaming from behind a mass of foliage, diffuses itself beautifully 
over the objects. A group of figures of both sexes, enjoying the calmness 
of the evening hour, occupy the foreground. By their warhke accom- 
paniments they would seem to be part of a corps of brigands ; but Italian 
skies and Itahan scenery allow, and in fact create, a veil of sentiment and 
romance which invests even such lawless characters in a halo of refine- 
ment and interest, which indeed is authorised by the received accovmts 
of the tastes and habits of these marauders. 



A FINE realisation of the scene described by ovir great novelist. The 
group — consisting of the beautiful Amy Robsart; her staid waiting- 
maiden Janet, the daughter of old Foster ; and Wayland, the feigned 
Pedlar — is assembled before the garden-house at Cumnor Place, where 
the stores of the travelling merchant are exhibited to the lady. 

The attitudes and occupations of the parties are aptly conceived. 
The half-listless air '\\ith which the fair but unacknowledged wife of the 
proud Leicester examines the treasures, exhibits the forced attention of 
one who seeks in any trivial novelty a refuge from ennui, and the means 
of " whiling away a heavy hour." Her attendant — whose plain attire 
and puritanic head-gear contrast well with the glistening silks and the 
jewelled radiance of her mistress's ornaments — takes soberly a distant 
view of the displayed vanities which in gay confusion are turned out of 
the pedlar's " mail," and afford a lively rehef to the prevalent gravity of 
the scene. 

The architecture, of the age of the Tudors, is skilfully imagined: the 
capacious ornaments of globe, pyramid, and diamonded polygon ; the 
scroll-work of unmeaning form, terminating in grotesque masks ; the dis- 
play of the lately adopted Greco-Italian orders ; the imposing access to 
the house by the enriched staircase; with the embroidered chimney- 
stacks, gables, and bay-windows of the more distant portion of the 
mansion — present a commentary on the then-existing state of the arts, 
and combine to form a highly picturesciue representation of an aristo- 
cratic country retreat ; with the state, the tranquillity, and the seclusion, 
so prevalent in the olden time. 

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" BoNNiNGTON " — The name is scarcely quoted by the lover of true 
genius without emotion. Such talent — such pure perception, and such 
powerful expression of the grand and the beautiful in nature and in art — 
so untimely cut down by death ! The reflection casts a shade of almost 
sacredness over his works; and to possess them even as inadequately 
translated into the language of the graver, is gratifying. 

The present scene is happily chosen ; full of interest and variety, 
and displaying the Artist's correct knowledge of perspective, both aerial 
and linear, and giving a good idea of the aspect of this ancient and 
wealthy city. The pubhc and private buildings in the front bear a lofty 
and magnificent character : the latter, many-storied, and abounding in 
the ornaments of the 16th and 17th centuries, — the former, exhibiting 
that pecuUar and mixed gothic taste which prevails in many parts of the 
Continent. The splendid tower of one of the principal religious edifices 
terminates the scene, and rises above the other objects in airy and 
shadowy majesty, reheving by its half tones the strong distinctions of 
the nearer objects. The figures which occupy the foreground are well 
introduced and full of hfe and motion — the effect of the whole sunny 
and animated. 

Bruges is one of the most important cities of the Netherlands. It is 
situated in a spacious and beautiful plain, about six miles from the sea. 
Although no river passes near the place, it is intersected by a great 
number of canals, which tend materially to advance its commerce. In 
former times the trade and manufactures of Bruges were more flourish- 
ing than at present. In the 14th century, in particvdar, it was one of the 
gi'eatest places of commerce in Evuope, forming an important branch of 
the Hanseatic confederacy, and carrying on frequent intercourse with 
England, Venice, and other foreign states. 

The Exchange here is supposed to have been one of the earliest 


establishments of the kind in Europe, and is a very fine building. There 
are besides, a chamber of commerce, a large insurance company, a navi- 
gation school, and a dock-yard. The population is upwards of 50,000. 
The streets are, in general, wide and well-lighted ; and the houses large, 
but old. The principal pubhc buildings are the Town-House, the Ex- 
change, the Lycee (formerly the celebrated convent of the Downs de 
Dunes), and the Church of Notre Dame, with its elevated spire. 

This city has long been the residence of a convent of English nuns. 
During the revolution they fled to their native country, but when rehgion 
was again tolerated they returned to their former residence, and in the 
character of instructors of youth were permitted to remain and enjoy 
their revenues in the country. It was in this city that Duke Phihp the 
Good, of Burgundy, founded the order of the Golden Fleece in 1430. It 
is also remarkable for having given birth to John of Bruges, the inventor 
of painting in oil. 



Water-mills, in general, and old water-mills in particular, are essentially 
picturesque ; and in an age of steam it is well to perpetuate the remem- 
brance of the antiquated rambling buildings ; the rude but massive archi- 
tecture ; the gushing, foaming fall of water ; the luxurious vegetation, 
nourished into rankness by the neighbouring humidity, and the air of 
rustic quiet and well-fed content, that pervade, or have pervaded, such 

And such an instance has Mr. Cattermole selected. The buildings 
are of the sort which grow out of the necessity of the case; the materials 
heterogeneous and coarsely applied ; and the moving power, the wheel, 
of the most picturesque form — the over-shot — with its glistening 
edges of moisture, and its descending lines and drops of silvery brilliancy. 

As a picture, the effect is that of harmonious arrangement, and mild 


r-A]\, S'-ftUoiwira Court & J.W* Sto,in:IU! LO- Derby SLrect, Kiii^s Cros: 


subdued light : the rapidly moving waterfall, in its outspread sheets and 
its bubbling foam, is well expressed. The foliage and the smaller vege- 
tation rich and detailed, without affected minuteness. There is an air of 
propriete and quietness about the well-behaved childi'en, which marks the 
comparative ease and substantial position of their parent, who fills the 
important and profitable station of tniller in a secluded village. 



A GLEAM of the brightest and warmest sunshine here bursts from a sky 
charged mth profuse masses of fleecy clouds. The effect produced is to 
give an airy and romantic character to the august pile of building which 
occupies the principal space, and which would otherwise have hazarded a 
monotony of effect. The picture is still further enlivened by the sparkling 
brilliancy of the nearer objects, which receive unimpeded the full flood of 
radiance, and contrast boldly with the deep tints of the shaded side of 
the church. 

Rotterdam is one of the finest cities in Holland, and contains several 
beautiful public buildings, among which is the great Church of St. Law- 
rence, (which forms the prominent feature in the engi-aving,) with its 
lofty Gothic tower, from whose top may be seen the Hague to the 
north-west, Leyden to the north, and Dort to the south-east. Li the 
interior a magnificent brass balustrade crosses it at the upper end, and 
a profusion of achievements, which cover the walls almost to the top, 
contribute to its solemnity. In addition to the arms of the deceased, 
they contain the dates of their birth and death, and are used instead of 
inscriptions, though no names are expressed upon them. Under the 
pulpit is an hour-glass, which hmits the discourse of the preacher. 



The elements of this picture are of the simplest description, but their 
combination produces a highly pleasing result. The time is early morn- 
ing, and the well-loaded vessels are gently bearing towards the land over 
the smooth and motionless water, — their strongly defined sails and 
tackle stretching up boldly into the white irradiation of the middle sky. 
The eifect of the sunshine, just beginning to overcome the haze which 
had previously enveloped every object, is skilfully given. The single 
land object— the lantern on the nearer head-land — is only just rendered 
visible through the still floating rack. The perfect calm is indicated by 
the long lines of unbroken light reflected from the minute objects at the 
water's edge, and the birds of soft and gi-aceful motion — the gently 
sweeping gulls — gi\'e sparkle and animation, as well as character, to the 



This is one of the most celebrated and most beautiful of our northern 
ecclesiastical ruins. Striking in position, — rich and ornate in its de- 
corations; — sung by the poet, — described by the tourist, — the theme of 
the historical searcher, — the delight of the antiquary; — there can scarcely 
be conceived a more favourable subject for the painter than Melrose 
Abbey. And the artist has happily caught the ins{)iration of the scene. 
Viewed from a considerable elevation, the august and extensive pile is 
placed enthroned amidst the lofty hills that distinguish this portion of 
our island. But it is not obscured ; a cloudy shadow passing over the 
retiring walls and the majestic tower, brings them out in firm and dark 







distinctness; while the glories of the eastern front, its embroidered 
window, its delicate shrines, and its foliaged compartments, glitter in the 
clear illumination of a finely introduced stream of light which spreads 
downwards towards the foreground, giving depth and harmony to the 
sombre glen whose leafy archway opens to receive the road. The massy 
repose of the trees, the receding tints of the mountains, and the distant 
cliff and tower that rise brightly into the dark, cloudy sky, give a total 
effect unusually soothing and intellectual. The spirits of the past seem 
to hover over the scene, and to mark the whole with the impress of 
greatness and splendour. 

The beautiful description of Melrose Abbey by Sir Walter Scott 
in his " Lay of the Last Minstrel," has rendered it an object of so much 
interest, as now to be visited by travellers from all parts of the globe ; 
and it is rendered still more attractive on account of its proximity to 
Abbotsford, the seat of the renowned poet himself. 

The Abbey, which is situated a short distance from the town of 
Melrose on the south side of the Tweed, was founded in 1136 by King 
David, who dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, and endowed it with 
extensive privileges and almost princely revenues. It was built in the 
form of St. John's Cross, and of very large dimensions. The niches, 
pillars, pedestals, canopies, &c., are of exquisite workmanship, and are 
covered with curiously sculptured figures. There were many fine build- 
ings within the Abbey, adjoining to which were gardens and other con- 
veniences, and the whole was surrounded by a high wall, about a mile 
in circuit. 



These fine remains present a rich and beautiflil example of the pointed 
arch in its purest and most simple contour. Without profuse ornament, 
the magnificence of the design produces a total effect that is splendid 



and impressive. The artist has judiciously admitted the light from the 
left side, displaying distinctly the architectural character of the opposite 
columns, and marking, by a well-expressed gradation, the length of the 
vista which is terminated by the western window. The ivy, clinging in 
copious wreaths to the arches and columns, adorns, without obscuring, 
the venerable ruin of past centuries. 

This famous Abbey, situate about seven miles south of Dumfries, was 
founded by Devorgilla, daughter of Allan, Lord of Galloway, and 
mother of John Baliol, King of Scotland. It was first named the Abbey 
of Sweetheart, from the circumstance of her husband's heart being 
embalmed and enclosed in a box of ivory and silver, which was built in 
the walls of the church, but its name was afterwards changed to that of 
New Abbey. The building stands in the middle of a level field of about 
twenty acres, surrounded by a high wall, and is a lofty and beautiful 
structure of the fight Gothic style of architecture. 



This indentation of the Italian coast is said by travellers to be un- 
equalled in beauty and richness among all known marine scenery. The 
gracefully sweeping course of the shore — the masses of buildings, many 
of them of splendid design, extending down to the beach- — ^the gradual, 
amphitheatric elevation of the land inward — the luxuriant verdure and 
foliage which every where abound, and the striking boldness of the 
distant outline, combine to form and to adorn this favoured site. The 
artist has here skilfully used the elements presented to him. From 
a road winding along an elevated brow, adorned by lofty trees, the eye 
ranges over the city, the bay, and the wavelcss Mediterranean, reposing 
under the brightest evening sunshine and the calmest atmosphere — such 
as this happy clhnate so frequently affords. The warm sky, dappled by 


/ Ui/l/^l^ . 

rWStwrmfl lO.DBrbgrStteet.Kingt Cross 


a few light, feathery clouds, tinged with the prevalent radiance, gives 
additional sweetness and harmony to the effect ; and in the distance the 
awful Vesuvius flings up its column of flame, tipped with folds of smoke 
which lose themselves in the surrounding air. A few human figures 
and some goats are judiciously introduced as appropriate accompani- 
ments to the tranqviil landscape. 

The quays or buildings along this celebrated bay extend in the form 
of a crescent for the space of nearly five miles, from the gate of 
Pausilipo which forms the entrance to the town on the west, to the 
bridge over the small river Sebeto which terminates it on the east ; their 
appearance, particularly in the quarter of the Chiaja to the west of the 
harbour, is grand and imposing. A charming view of the Bay is ob- 
tained from the royal gardens, a fashionable promenade for the inhabi- 
tants, situated on the margin of the sea. 



In topographical subjects, one-half of the interest arises from their 
historical associations, where such exist ; and the taste and feeling of an 
artist are evinced in his selection of points which shall combine pic- 
turesque effect with the intellectual gratification derived from the 
contemplation of the place hallowed by gi-eat and virtuous deeds. Who 
that thinks of the Leman Lake does not at once mentally recur to the 
ennobhng scene that accompanied the bold resumption of Helvetic 
independence, and the expulsion of the Austrian oppressors ? Who has 
not longed to — 


— hail the chapel — hail the platform wild, 
Where Tell directed the avenging dart 
With well-strung arm, that first preserved his child, 
Then winged the arrow to the tyrant's heart 1 

Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. 


The painter of this picture gratifies the wish of the aspirant. The 
simple edifice known as " William Tell's Chapel," on its rocky basement, 
forms the principal object. Apparently embraced in a thick sacred grove 
to landward, it stands out brightly and firmly from the masses of foliage 
and fi'om the mountain heights which surround it. The receding eleva- 
tions, the " Alps on Alps," which rise and almost fill the back-ground, 
successfully convey the idea of distance and magnitude. The waters of 
the quiet lake He spread out in the front, enlivened by passage- or 
pleasure-boats, whose inmates by their actions denote their own interest, 
and claim the attention of the observer to the revered object before 
which they are moving. 

The lake of Geneva — one of the most celebrated in Europe — extends 
in the form of a crescent between Switzerland and Savoy, and occupies 
part of the great valley which separates the Alps from the Jura ridge. 
Its length along the north or Swiss shore is fifty miles ; on the side 
of Savoy forty-two ; its greatest breadth is ten miles ; and its greatest 
depth about one thousand feet. In summer its tributary streams, of 
which by far the largest is the Rhone, are swelled by the melting of the 
snows, and cause a rise of several feet in the water of the lake. It is 
observed also to have an alternation of rise and fall in stormy weather, 
sometimes for several hours together, owing perhaps to the influence of 
electrical clouds. It is never known to be frozen, and its water is 
beautifully clear, except at the influx of the muddy current of the Rhone. 
Tlie scenery all around is most magnificent, the north side being fertile 
and beautifully diversified, whilst the south side rises gradually imtil its 
mountains form the highest of the Alpine range. 




(from sir WALTER SCOTT's "ABBOT.") 

We have here a very spirited embodying of the scene in Sir Walter 
Scott's " Abbot," where the puzzled Roland is left by his ancient 
conductors in company with the meny and piquante Catharine, " that 
they may become better acquainted ;" such better acquaintance, how- 
ever, being to be made under the watchful surveillance of the two 
ancients, who pursue their conversation while gravely pacing the outer 
balcony. The moment chosen by the artist is that where the maiden's 
sudden and unexpected risibility has surprised and annoyed the bewildered 
Roland Graeme, who " sat with some impatience until Catharine had 
exhausted either her power or her desire of laughing, and was returning 
with good grace to the exercise of her needle." 

The incident is vividly expressed both in the countenances and 
actions of the figures ; and the costumes, furniture, and other ac- 
companiments, display gr-eat taste and antiquarian knowledge. The 
light is judiciously introduced, so as to bring the principal actors 
prominently into notice, while the architecture and decorations of the 
apartment are kept in comparative obscurity, but yet allowing all the 
objects to be sufficiently distinguishable. 



A BEAUTIFUL marine effect ; the water alive with motion, and the sky 


filled with light and driving clouds, admirably contributing to the con- 
sistency of the scene — sunshine and wind without the excess which 
impresses the idea of danger ; the building which gives a name to the 
picture forming a small object in the distant line of coast. The aerial 
perspective is expressed with a fine gradation of tints, and the deep 
cloudy shadow which traverses the face of the water is boldly and 
magnificently given, itself broken and crossed by the light spray which 
dashes against the sides of the vessel in the centre. The science and 
skill of the engraver are exquisitely exerted in the playfully varied 
course of the lines which so perfectly illustrate the salient undulation of 
the waves and the scintillations of their foamy crests. 



A SPLENDID pile, exhibited so as to combine detail with magnitude. The 
minute work and capricious architecture of the advanced portion 
illuminated by bright sunshine, the obscured massiveness of the middle 
division, and the tower and spire thrown into distance, and rising in 
glistening radiance into the mild sky, give a powerful and interesting 
presentation of the venerable edifice ; and the strong shadow into which 
the neighbouring objects are thrown assists the striking contrast, and 
displays the extent of the building with additional force. 

The tower and spire of this church, which is known by the name of 
" St. Pierre de Darnetal," are of the most admirable form and workman- 
ship. The extreme delicacy and picturesque effect of the stone-work of 
the spire, as well as the lightness and imposing consequence given to the 
tower upon wliich tlie si)ire rests, are of a character peculiar to itself. 
Tlie whole viewed from any asjjcct has a rich and charming effect. The 
style of the body of the church will not bear severe criticism. It is not 







ffijVJSKf <Z.S:' 

•^7 yiP 

Loodofi-, SimpWin fctfetshall , Staiioncr. .:> Derby 3tc«ol . Kn^i CroM 

christopheh sly and the hostess. 25 

only florid Gothic, but, if possible, surpasses the luxuriance of that style 
in the superabundance of its decoration. The parts put together at 
various times, and overloaded with ornaments of several periods, exhibit 
more than one style of architecture, — the latest designed in the Italian 
style, introduced in the reign of Francis I. The buttresses are, for the 
most part, lofty and airy. In the midst of these varied styles of archi- 
tecture, the tower and spire of a pure style rise majestically a proud me- 
morial of the skill and taste of a master-mind. Bourgueville, in his " Re- 
cherches et Antiquitez de la Ville et Universite de Caen, Sfc." 1588, is 
extremely particular, and even eloquent, in his accounts of the tower. He 
says that he had seen towers at Paris, Rouen, Toulouse, Avignon, Nar- 
bonne, Montpelier, Lyons, Amiens, Chartres, Anglers, Bayeux, Constance's 
and those of St. Stephen at Caen, and others in divers parts of France, 
which are built in a pyramidal form; but this tower of St. Peter exceeded 
all the others, as well in the height, as in its curious form of construction. 
Dr. Dibdin, in the account of his travels in France and Germany, 
speaking of the same subject, says, " I am not sure that I can recollect 
any thing of equal beauty and effect in the whole range of ecclesiastical 
edifices in our own country. Such a tower and spire, if found in England, 
must be looked for in Salisbury Cathedral; but though this latter is 
much loftier, it is stiff, cold, and formal, in comparison with that of ' St. 
Pierre de Darnetal,' at Caen." 



Hostess. — You will not pay for the glasses you have burst? 
Sly. — No, not a denier: go by, says Jeroniray ; — 
Go to thy cold bed, and warm thee. — Taming of the Shretv, Induction, Scene 1. 

A WELL imagined and spirited impersonation of the scene; — the hostess, 
well fed and voluminously clad, wears an air of defiance and affronted 


determination, now that her guest can no longer pay for his ale or his 
broken glasses ; — the drunken tinker, full of easy indifference and joyous 
mobihty, snaps his fingers in her face, as, in his uncouth dance, he 
nearly places the centre of gravity of his person " without the base" of 
support. But, bewildered as he is, he still carries in his countenance an 
air of contemplative self-importance, as becomes him who reads the 
Chronicles, " whose ancestors came in with the Conqueror," and who is 
moreover a man of learning, and can jabber Latin withal, and mystify a 
troublesome applicant. The scene is quiet and pleasing, as befits the 
lone but snug public-house. The ornaments of the building are in good 
taste, and the general effect, clear and forcible. 



Gothic architecture is much and deservedly admired in this country, 
where it has, perhaps, arrived at the highest state of perfection. It is, 
however, as pleasing to an English mind for its historical recollections 
and associations, as for its intrinsic beauty. 

The architect who has lately restored this interesting monument, 
has given us an opportunity of perpetuating the memory of it ; and our 
engraving from his drawing presents a delightful picture of this struc- 
ture as it might have appeared in the 1.3th century, accompanied with 
its probable accessories. The beauty of the edifice, highly enriched 
and adorned with sculpture ; its elegant spire finely relieved against the 
light and varied sky ; the pious group engaged in adoration ; the monk 
jjursuing his way to join the procession of the order returning to their 
abbey, — bring to our mind the history and customs of times long since 
past, never to return. 

The landscape is admirably adapted to the principal object of the 
picture ; in the distance is the Abbey of Waltham, with tlie marshes 











viTOcrB Court: S: TWSlsvim* , 10, Derby Stx<«t . Sntfc CTOsr 


flooded, forming an extensive lake — a circumstance of frequent occur- 
rence even at the present day. 

The architecture of this Cross is of the early English style, higlily 
enriched, but is charged with a variety of ornament well-designed, and 
executed in a masterly manner. It was probably designed by a monk 
of the adjoining abbey, as at that period the religious classes monopolized 
not only all the learning, but all the taste of the country. 

The view presented by the engraving represents the Cross as it most 
probably appeared at the period of its first erection, with all the steps 
which originally formed its base. It was erected about the year 1290, at 
the command of Edward I. to the memory of his Queen Eleanor, who 
was the daughter of Ferdinand, third King of Castile and Leon. She 
was married to Edward I. of England in 1254 ; and a more truly happy 
union can hardly be recorded in the annals of royal wedlock. For thirty- 
six years she was never separated from her husband, attending him 
through all his campaigns, and sharing with him in all the difficulties 
and dangers of his military expeditions. In one of these expeditions, 
her husband having been stabbed with a poisoned dagger, she sucked the 
poison from the wound, and thus saved his life at the imminent hazard 
of her own. 

The incidents in the life of this amiable Queen are few ; but history 
has handed down her name as coupled with all the domestic virtues, and 
recorded her as a rare example of active and viseful benevolence. " She 
was," says HoHnshed, " a godlie and modest princesse, full of pitie, and 
one that shewed much fauour to the English nation ; readie to releeue 
euerie man's greefe that susteined wrong, and to make them freends 
that were at discord so farre as in hir laie." And Walsingham adds, 
" that her ears were always open to the complaints of the oppressed ; 
that she discouraged every act of tyrrany on the part of the nobles over 
their dependants, a vice too common in the days of feudal power ; and 
that she was, as it were, the pillar of the realm." 

Edward appears to have returned the love of his amiable consort 
with corresponding affection, and to have mourned her loss with a grief 
that was sincere. This event happened on the 27th of November, 


1290, near Herdely, in Nottinghamshire, whilst she was accompanying 
her lord into Scotland ; and, being carried to the house of a neighbouring 
gentleman, she expired, to the great grief of her husband and the whole 
nation. Edward returned slowly with the body to Westminster, where 
she was buried, according to Fabian, "in the Chapell ofseynt Edwarde, 
at ye fete of Henry the Third." The King attended during the whole 
progress as chief mourner, and wherever the body rested in its route 
from Nottinghamshire to the place of its interment, he erected a cross, 
with statues of the Queen as monuments of his affection, " in order," 
according to Walsingham, " that all passengers might be reminded to 
breathe a prayer for her soul." Of these crosses, which, Gough very 
justly remarks, " are so many memorials of conjugal love, unparalleled 
in any other kingdom," three only remain, namely, Geddington, North- 
ampton, and Waltham, which last is a master-piece of the best period of 
Gothic art, and worthy to be preserved to posterity, both as a rare 
historical monument, and an admirable specimen of architecture ; and 
from the prevailing taste for keeping up our national monuments, there 
have been found amateurs willing to subscribe their mite towards its 
repair or restoration. 

About tlic year 1720, the Royal Society of Antiquaries, at the 
instance of Dr. Stukely, caused the foundation to be repaired in brick- 
work, and posts and rails to be placed around it. 

On the 2f)th of October, 1831, a meeting of gentlemen residing in 
the neighbourhood of the cross was convened, for the purpose of 
devising means to restore this ancient public monument, when it was 
resolved to raise a subscription for that purpose. Aided by the munifi- 
cence of Lord Hardwick, a great patron of art, lately deceased, and 
Sir Abraham Hume, Bart., and the exertions of Edward Clarke, Esq., 
a resident of the place, an adequate sum was eventually raised ; and 
the restoration of the building lias been effected under the gratuitous 
superintendence of Mr. William Barnard Clarke, architect. Only four 
of the original steps, however, have been restored; the ground having 
been gradually raised by the accumulated materials laid from time to 
time to repair the road which runs round the north-west side of the 





building. An angle of the inn which formerly abutted on the building 
has been removed, leaving the cross isolated ; surrounded, however, by 
palisades to protect it from injury. A second subscription, under the 
patronage of Queen Adelaide, was raised for the purpose of restoring the 
statue of Queen Eleanor, which has been since perfected by Mr. West- 
inacott, R.A. 



This picture presents a characteristic scene of open country in Wales. 
The brawling mountain-stream eddying over rocks, and broken into rapids ; 
the remains of the bridge, once a distinguished structure, but now ren- 
dered available only by the rough planks thrown across the ruined piers^ 
and the majestic summit of Snowdon rising in the distance, are elements 
to form a pleasing and varied, though somewhat wild, prospect. Tlie 
Artist has shown much skill in the expression of the gradually receding 
space; and the clear and distinct precision with which he has depicted 
the nearer objects as well as the more distant without impairing the 
harmony of the picture, shows a very remarkable attention to nature. 
Mr. Bentley combines the skill of an engraver with that of a painter. 



The varied talent of Mr. Cattermole is conspicuous in this picture. In 
historical subjects as in landscape he is equally felicitous. The light con- 
centrated on the principal figure, relieved by the deep gloom of the apart- 



ment, with the harmonious blendings of the middle tints, render this 
subject perfect in point of effect. 

The Wehme (or Vehme) Gerichte, described by Sir Walter Scott in 
the romance of Anne of Gierstein, was a secret and inquisitorial court, 
established many centuries since in Germany, and said to exist there 
even at the present day. Its power consisted in a wide system of espio- 
nage ; and its influence was so great, that at the thought of this associa- 
tion even kings and emperors trembled on their thrones, and, tyrants 
themselves, they feared that dark institution, which, unseen, dealt de- 
struction alike to prince and peasant. 

In the romance there is a very clear and interesting description of 
that fearful tribunal, to which individuals were cited to answer the charges 
brought against them by their accusers. In this design the Artist appears 
to have intended to represent such a citation on an individual of distinc- 
tion ; and, with a little license, we may fairly suppose that the personages 
are intended for the Count Albert of Gierstein, a noted member of the 
Vehmique institution, and Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, the 
most passionate pi'ince of the age. Fear and anger are ably expressed on 
the countenance of the Duke, while the masked figure in the vulture-like 
helmet may be considered the Count Albert, who had undertaken to cite 
the Duke to appear before the Holy Vehme. 

In the detail of the picture the Artist has not forgotten the "citation 
signetted with three crosses," and the long straight sword with a handle 
in the form of a cross, a characteristic emblem of this institution. This 
work of art is altogether a very meritorious production. 


(Formerly the seat of tlie Nortliumberland Family.) 

In this landscape a fine breadth of light is thrown on the large square 
tower of the castle, round which the thick ivy is clustered ; and the dark 



> 8 



bold foreground reminds us of the beautiful effects produced by that 
admirable painter of nature, Gainsborough. 

This fine baronial castle, now in ruins, was built, according to Mr. 
Lewis, (Lewis's Topographical Dictionary,) " by Thomas Percy, Earl of 
Worcester, who was made prisoner at the battle of Shrewsbury, and 
afterwards beheaded. This once princely mansion continued to be the 
.seat of the Northumberland family till the civil wars in the reign of 
Charles I., when it was demolished by order of the Parhament." 

Wressle (or Wressel) Castle, in the parish of the same name, is situated 
in the wapentake or hundred of Harthill, in the East Riding of the county 
of York, and is distant four miles from Howden, anciently called Hove- 
don. The village is small, but the church is a very ancient building, 
and is what is called a discharged vicarage, having been valued in the 
king's books {Valor Ecclesiasticus , temp. Hen. VIII.) at the yearly assess- 
ment of 51. 13s. 9d. The Earl of Egremont has here a country seat. 



Here is one of those retired spots which are frequently to be met with in 
the mountainous and rocky parts of England. 

The village of Chedder is in Somersetshire, seven miles from Wells, 
and is situated near the town of Axbridge on the river Ax. It is built 
immediately under the south-west side of the Mendip Hills. The village 
and adjacent scenery are pecuUarly romantic. A remarkable chasm, open 
to the very base of the hills, forms the celebrated cliffs of Chedder. These 
cliffs extend quite through the south-west ridge of Mendip, to the di- 
stance of two miles. The bold rocks, rich with minerals, rise perpendicu- 
larly to the height of three hundred feet. 

Their picturesqueness is extreme, many parts having the appearance 
of ruined castles with fallen battlements, and high Gothic pinnacles tower- 


ing above them ; dark yews grow in the clefts of the rock, and thick 
and tangled i^^ contrasts finely with the brilliant tints of the stone : the 
situation affords to the painter an ample field of study. The entrance 
to this picturesque chasm is near a mill turned by a rapid brook, a tribu- 
tary stream to the Ax ; and this appears to be the situation which the 
artist has chosen for his view. It presents a beautiful picture. The 
lowly quiet village and the calm of the small head of water are finely 
contrasted with the lofty and wild-looking crags which almost overhang 
the humble dwellings of the villagers, threatening them with destruction. 
The sunbeam lighting up the tops of the distant cliffs, leaving the faint 
outline of their bold bases indistinctly shadowed out in the misty atmo- 
sphere below ; the deep tone of the middle distance, the village well 
relieved, and the brilliance, combined with the richness of the foreground, 
evince a pure and elegant taste but rarely to be met with. 

Chedder, in addition to its picturesque beauties, possesses superior 
pastures, to which is attributed the fine cheese produced from the dairies 
of that neighbourhood. 



This engraving is after a design from the celebrated romance of Ndlre 
Dame by Victor Hugo. The artist here displays a very correct know- 
ledge of Gothic architecture, over which he has thrown a brilhant effect. 
There is great beauty in the light breaking over the tomb ; fine contrast 
in the dark oak stall, relieved against the wall ; great taste is displayed 
in the play of light and shade about the high altar of the cathedral, and 
not less skill in throwing it into distance by the relief from the dee]) 
sliadow of the Gothic ])ointed archway leading into the cell Avhcre the 
unfortunate solitary object, the deaf Quasimodo, appears squatted down, 

e:ec;siDjjriosm His^iBi iKATiar. 


.^nSan-Sizn^dii < 

v.«; buXB^U.- 
"irt.»iTW9tmnsis.l0.BerlT)rStre«.I3iigs ( 

< I 


w - 

© i 


apostrophising the silent statues. This is the moment chosen by the 
artist, who has contrived, by his knowledge of the accessories, and his 
taste in arranging them, to throw an air of romance over the entire scene. 


J. B. PYNE. 

From such simple materials the painter, Mr. J. B. Pyne, of Bristol, has 
produced a most agreeable picture. The correct touch, representing the 
fohage of nature with extreme fidelity, combined with a broad sunny 
effect, has mainly contributed to render this subject pleasing and pic- 

The scene is truly English, and breathes an air of pastoral poetry: it 
reminds us of the 

" brook that turns a mill, 

With many a fall, shall linger near." — Rogers. 


D. COX. 

The approach to Calais must be fresh in the memory of a great many of 
our readers. The entrance to the harbour does not present the most 
favourable point of view for a picture ; yet the subject has been ably 
treated by Mr. Cox, an artist of considerable reputation in the original 
and unrivalled school of British painters in water colours. Mr. Cox 
is esteemed by painters and connoisseurs in that medium of the pictorial 
art, one of the richest colourists of the day. 

In this picture, an excellent specimen of the artist's style, more life 



and variety has been infused than might have been expected in a subject 
which possesses but a small share of pictorial interest. The historical 
features of the scene, on the other hand, are highly interesting. The 
English, about the year 1347, in the reign of Edward III., after a long 
siege, became possessed of Calais, the key to France ; of which they 
retained the possession above two centuries, when, in the reign of Mary, 
1 557, it was suddenly attacked by the French and obhged to capitulate 
in less than eight days. During the time it was held by the English it 
became the arena of many a bloody struggle, — the scene of many a costly 





This is another design from the skilful pencil of Mr. Cattermole, in 
which his taste and antiquarian knowledge are highly preeminent. All 
the various tints of this busy scene are most harmoniously blended. 
The subject of this picture probably represents the old Lord Crawford, 
who imperceptibly has glided into the seat prepared for him by the 
Scottish archers, on the occasion of the enrolment of Quenten Durward, 
after his escape from the clutches of the Provost Marshal, the cruel 
Tristan I'Hermite. The rich deep tones and the sparkling lights give a 
surprising vivacity and brilliancy to the scene. 



Greenwich Hospital may be considered with truth one of the finest 
edifices in this country ; and applied, as it is, to one of the most bene- 

" m 





S =a 







I "^ -3 


The views from the hills in the park are very beautiful. Looking 
over the tops of the old oaks, which grow in clumps out of deep hollows 
and embrowned dells, the eye falls on that noble structure the hospital, 
rising in the midst of an amphitheatre of wood ; beyond this are the two 
reaches of the river, making that beautiful serpentine which forms the 
Isle of Dogs ; on the river, the shipping of all countries constitute a con- 
tinually moving and varied panorama ; and in the distance a fine tract of 
country, leading to one of the most extensive capitals in the world, bounds 
this magnificent prospect. The Thames opposite the hospital is very 
broad and the channel deep, and at some very high tides the water is 



By the felicitous arrangement of light and shade the artist is enabled 
from slight materials to produce a lively and agreeable picture. The 
aerial and sunny effect of this subject is remarkably fine. Immense 
space and distance are gained from the contrast of the rich foreground, 
and the figures in perspective, with the light tints of the sky, and the more 
distant colour of the ocean. Broadstairs, or more properly Bradstow, a 
fashionable watering-place, is a considerable hamlet in the parish of St. Peter 
in the Isle of Thanet. This place has increased greatly within the last cen- 
tury. In the year 1656 there were only eighteen houses assessed to the 
poor's-rate, which in 1759 were increased to sixty. At the present time, 
1835, the place deserves rather the appellation of town than hamlet. 
Opposite the town, at the distance of about two leagues from the shore, 
are the Goodwin Sands extending ten miles from north to south, and 
about two miles in breadth from east to west. Ships striking here seldom 
escape destruction. The most extensive injury- on record ever experienced 
on this spot by the British navy was on the 27th of November 1703, 
when the Stirling Castle, the Restoration, the Northumberland, and the 


ficent purposes, as a dwelling for our veteran seamen, it must be viewed 
by Englishmen with the highest feelings of national pride. Here, 
after a Ufe of toil, the brave sailor finds a peaceful home; a home which, 
from its situation, constantly reminds him of the scenes in which he has 
passed his early life. 

The point of view represents the finest features of this princely pile, 
and the artist has given great depth and richness of colour to the mass 
of building, and at the same time, has paid due attention to the details 
and fine proportions of this masterpiece of architecture, the design of 
the celebrated Inigo Jones, who had studied in the Italian school. The 
foreground is peculiarly bold and effective, and the bank of the river is 
expressed with great fidelity, giving to the locality an air of truth, which 
is too often destroyed by the painter for the sake of the composition. 

Greenwich Hospital is situated on the banks of the Thames, in the 
county of Kent, five miles east of London. Anciently there stood on 
this spot a palace built by Duke Humphry of Gloucester, in the reign 
of Henry V., which was afterwards enlarged by Henry VH., and finally 
completed by Henry VHI., who resided continually at that place. The 
Queens Mary and Elizabeth, who were born there, made it also frequently 
their place of abode. The palace eventually becoming neglected was 
pulled down in the reign of Charles H., who commenced another, after 
the designs of Inigo Jones, on the site of the ancient edifice; at the same 
time also he enlarged and inclosed the park, and built an observatory on 
the site of a tower erected by the same Duke Humphry. A portion only 
of this palace was finished during the lifetime of Charles. It was finally 
completed in 1694 by William HI., who converted it into a royal hospital 
for old and disabled seamen, about two thousand of whom are maintained 

This institution is principally supported by the proceeds fi'om the 
Earl of Derwentwatcr's estate, which was settled on it by Parliament 
in 1732; in addition to which more than (iO.OOO/. have been bestowed 
upon it at various times by private benefactors. The allowance made to 
the pensioners out of those funds is considered to be on a liberal scale. 
The governor is generally an old naval officer. 


Mary, were unfortunately lost on these sands, and no less than eleven 
hundred seamen perished. 



TivoLi, the ancient Tibur, stands on a hill covered with groves of 
olive trees. The town boasts a high antiquity, and still possesses a con- 
siderable population. The situation is beautiful : sheltered on one side 
by Monte Catili and a semicircular range of Sabine mountains, it com- 
mands on the other an extensive view over the Campagna, bounded by 
the sea, Rome, Monte Soracte, and the pyramidal hills of Monticelli, and 
Monte Rotonda, the ancient Eretrum. 

The pride and ornament of Tivoli was the beautiful cascade which 
fell from the Anio near the temple of Vesta. This cascade was destroyed 
a few years since in consequence of the river having risen much beyond 
its usual height. The injury was repaired by an artificial dam, con- 
structed during the pontificate of Leo XII.; but, as may be well sup- 
posed, this contrivance has not restored the cascade to its natural and 
pristine beauty. Before its destruction by the devastating flood, the 
river, having meandered from its source through the valleys of Sabina, 
glided gently through Tivoli, till, coming to the brink of a rock, it pre- 
cipitated itself in one mass down the steep, and then boiling for an in- 
stant in its narrow channel, rushed headlong through a chasm into a 
cavern beloAV. 

The banks of the channel rise to the height of two hundred feet, their 
sides being partially covered with shrubs and verdure, and on the summit 
of one of them stands the celebrated building called the Temple of the 
Sibyl, but which has been with more reason attributed to Vesta. The 
temple, like all those dedicated to this goddess, is of a circular form, and 
of the Corinthian order. It was bviilt in the reign of Augustus, and has 
been universally admired, more on account of the beauty of its propor- 
tions and the situation in which it is placed than for its size. The cell 
of the temple was originally surrounded with eighteen columns, ten of 
which, with their entablature, still remain. The Earl of Bristol is 
reported to have offered a considerable sum for this ruin, with the view 
of removing it to England and re-erecting it in his park. This intention 



was fortunately frustrated by a prohibition of the Papal Government, 
grounded on a declaration that ruins were public property. 

Mr. Havell has had a delightful subject to deal with, and one which 
has afforded him ample scope to display very considerable taste and skill. 
The still quiet of the air and the clear light of day are beautifully ex- 
pressed ; indeed there are few artists who can produce the effect of sun- 
shine and the stillness of scenery equal to Mr. Havell. 


D. cox. 

Marine painting must, from our insular position, be always a pleasing 
branch of the pictorial art to Englishmen : this engraving will therefore 
be an agreeable addition to the varied scenes so often drawn from the 
same source. The subject, which has been ably treated by Mr. Cox, 
though simple in composition, is finely arranged. The drawing is marked 
by great freedom and truth, and the colouring is not less rich, producing 
a most delishtful effect. 




The Rhine abounds in wild and romantic scenery, admirably calculated 
to excite the feelings and call forth the pencil of the artist. The subject 
before us has been well chosen by Mr. Browne, a young painter of great 
j)romise. The light and shade are arranged with considerable skill, pro- 
ducing a pleasing and varied effect. The scene is one of great beauty, 
and has afforded tlie artist an opportunity of producing an excellent 
specimen of his talent. 

The ruins of the Katze, or the Cat, are situated near St. Goar, on 
that majestic river tiie Rhine, between the Rheinfels and the Lurley-berg, 
remarkable for its echo. The castle rises behind the town of Goarhausen. 
The inhabitants of this district were anciently called. Katten, and the 
place is now known by the name of Katze. The territory belonged 
formerly to a noble family bearing the name of Katzenellenbogen. The 
custlc, wliicli was built in tlic year 1393 by the third Count of that name, 
was partially destroyed by Napoleon in ItiOT. 

M f 







Nurse. Mistress! — what, mistress! — Juliet! — fast, I warrant her, she: — 
Why, lamb ! — why, lady ! — fye, you slug-a-bed ! — 
Why, love, I say! — madam! sweet-heart! — why, bride! — 
What, not a word ? 

To the historical painter the poetical and natural descriptions of our 
immortal bard offer an almost infinite variety of subjects for his pencil. 
From this great poet, Mr. Wright, a talented artist of the present day, 
has chosen a well known and highly interesting subject, in the design 
and execution of which he has displayed great taste. The simplicity of the 
composition is quite in the Stothard school, and the merit of the design 
is enhanced by the correct drawing of the figures, and the rich depth of 
colour in the draperies. 



This beautiful view is from the pencil of Mr. Marshall, a young artist 
of great promise in the art of landscape-painting, and who may be ranked 


among the first painters in that branch of the pictorial art. In the sub- 
ject before us, which is well adapted for the burin of the engraver, a very 
brilliant, rich, and harmonious effect is produced. In the distance the 
romantic castle called " Crow Castle " is happily introduced. 

The beauties of the Vale of Llangollen are celebrated both in prose and 
verse. It is watered by the river Deva, and has a canal from the Pont y 
Crysyltan aqueduct, running through its whole length to the Oernant 
slate-quarries. This vale is situated in the county of Denbigh, North 



Mr. Bentley has infused great life and vigour into this beautiful marine 
picture, in which the fine old Castle of Scarborough forms a principal 
feature. A light and varied effect is finely introduced and contrasted 
with the deep gloom of a part of the sea and sky, while to the whole of 
this extensive scene a grand and imposing appearance is given. 

Scarborough Castle was built about the year 1 136 by William Le Gros, 
Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, a nobleman of Norman extraction, 
who possessed large estates in this vicinity. It was eventually seized by 
Henry II., and ever after continued to be a royal fortress. The govern- 
ment of the castle was esteemed an office of such distinction that the 
appointment was soUcited by persons of the highest rank. Nothing of 
importance occurs in its history till the reign of Edward II., when Piers 
Gaveston sought refuge here from the persecution of the rebeUious Barons. 
The Earl of Pembroke besieged the castle, which Gaveston defended for 
some time with great bravery, but was at length compelled to surrender 
from the want of i)rovisions. About six years later the castle was be- 
sieged by the Scots, under Lord Douglas, who had signalized himself at 
the battle of Bannockburn. In 1377, Mercer, a daring Scotch pirate, 
was committed prisoner to this fortress, but was shortly after released 




t^ ? 

i^"i ^ 




for a trifling ransom. His son, in revenge for liis father's imprisonment, 
carried off several ships from the harbour. In the time of the rebelhon in 
1536, Scarborough Castle was besieged by a part of the fanatical army 
under Robert Ashe; but their efforts were of no avail, owing to the gallant 
defence made by Sir Ralph Eure. During Wyat's rebellion, Mr. Thomas 
Stafford made himself master of the fortress by stratagem, but retained 
possession only three days, when it was retaken by the Earl of West- 
moreland. In the civil wai's of the time of Charles I. it was twice be- 
sieged and taken by the Parliamentary forces. In the year 1745 Scar- 
borough Castle underwent some slight repairs, to enable it to make a 
good defence. 

The walls of the Castle are twelve feet thick, and cased with squared 
stones ; and the mortar, having been used in a fluid state, has acquired 
a consistency equal to the stone itself. An embattled wall, which has 
defended and adorned the summit of the hill on the western side, con- 
tinues hence to the southern extremity of the castle-yard. The wall is 
flanked with numerous semicircular turrets, with chinks and openings, 
from whence arrows and other missiles were discharged. These walls 
and towers are now hastening to decay, and exhibit a scene of venerable 

The old town of Scarborough appears to have occupied much less 
extensive limits than the modern town, and to have been built close to 
the shore. The reason of this is obvious : the former owed its import- 
ance to its trade and fisheries, while the latter is supported almost entirely 
by the celebrity of its mineral waters and the salubrity of its situation. 



The subject from which the artist has drawn this picture is most proba- 
bly taken from a scene, described in some romance or novel, in which a 


young lady appears to pay attention to the admonitions of her duenna. 
Some such scene as the one here represented is described in the interest- 
ing history of Gil Bias de Santillane. 

Mr. Vickers, whose forte lies in landscape, and especially in marine 
subjects, possesses also the power of depicting " the human form divine," 
and thus displays a versatility of genius. 



The romantic scenes described by the celebrated German author Gothe, 
in his no less celebrated Faust, are admirably calculated for such a pencil 
as Mr. Cattermole's. The point of time depicted is that eventful moment 
when Mephistophiles, after leaving Faustus and Margaret in the summer- 
house, awaits their return on the stairs. The subject speaks for itself; 
the drawing and colouring breathe an air of romance ; and in the figure 
of Mephistophiles, the subtle, calculating, crafty character of the demon 
is fully expressed. 



This happy effort of the artist, evidently studied from nature, will always 
be considered an excellent picture. The scene here represented is a fine 
bold view of a ruined and romantic castle, situated on the eastern coast of 
Northumberland. Tiic varied liglit ami shade is produced by the agency 
of a storm, the dark clouds of which may be seen passing off into tlie 
distance. The sky by contrast is full of light, and the great depth of 

Tm:iE AlCDlfflflDfJI TI ®u. 

LMifloa, 3na|idn,8L li' 


si? \i^ >-i 

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shadow in the foreground adds greatly to the brilHancy of the effect. The 
consequences of the storm are apparent in the wreck forming the fore- 
ground of the picture. Dunstanborough Castle, on the spot where 
the occurrence took place, becomes so grand and imposing a feature 
in the centre of the picture, that none but the most apathetic of artists 
could have failed to seize the opportunity, afforded by the awful 
scene, of displaying its grandeur and picturesqueness. Historically the 
Castle presents few features of interest ; the only remarkable fact with 
which we are acquainted is its having sustained a siege during the de- 
vastating wars of the houses of York and Lancaster, towards the decline 
of the fortunes of Henry VI. It is singular that though Dunstanborough 
is of considerable extent, and one of the largest of the border castles, yet 
so little should be known concerning its history. Part of the outer wall 
and a portion of the round tower are all that remain of this once noble 
structure. There is one circumstance connected with a portion of the 
cliff below the Castle which deserves mention. When the wind blows 
strong from the north-east, the sea is propelled over the cUff sometimes 
to the height of thirty feet above the rock. This place has acquired the 
appellation of the Rumbling Quern {chmii) . 



This may be considered one of the best pictures from the pencil of this 
talented artist. The scene, from one of Sir Walter Scott's novels, is laid 
in the mean inn where Osbaldiston and Baillie Nicol Jarvie receive a 
rough reception from the occupants of the hostel. 

The picture most truly represents the scene thus described by the great 
novelist: " 'We are three to three,' said the lesser Highlander, glancing 
his eyes at our party : 'if ye be pretty men, draw.' And, unsheathing his 
broadsword, he advanced on me. I put myself" in a posture of defence, 



and, aware of the superiority of my weapon, a rapier or small-sword, 
was little afraid of the issue of the contest. The Baillie behaved with 
unexpected mettle. As he saw the gigantic Highlander confront him 
with his weapon drawn, he tugged for a second or two at the hilt of his 
shabble, as he called it ; but finding it loth to quit the sheath, to which 
it had long been secured by rust and disuse, he seized, as a substitute, 
on the red hot coulter of a plough which had been employed in arranging 
the fire by way of a poker, and brandished it with such effect, that at the 
first pass he set the Highlander's plaid on fire, and compelled him to keep 
a respectful distance till he could get it extinguished. Andrew, on the 
contrary, who ought to have faced the Lowland champion, had, I grieve 
to say it, vanished at the very commencement of the fray. But his an- 
tagonist, crying, ' Fair play ! fair play !' seemed courteously disposed to 
take no share in the scuffle. Thus we commenced our rencounter on fair 
terms as to numbers. My own aim was to possess myself, if possible, 
of my antagonist's weapon ; but I was deterred from closing for fear of 
the dirk which he held in his left hand and used in parrying the thrusts 
of my rapier. Meantime the Baillie, notwithstanding the success of his 
first onset, was sorely bested. The weight of his weapon, the corpulence 
of his person, the very effervescence of his own passions, were rapidly 
exhausting both his strength and his breath, and he was almost at the 
mercy of his antagonist, when up started the sleeper from the floor on 
which he reclined, with his naked sword and target in his hand, and threw 
himself between the discomfited magistrate and his assailant." (Vol. iii. 
p. 23.) This is the moment chosen by the artist. In conclusion we may 
add, for the information of those who have not read the story, that this 
terrible affray ended without bloodslied. 


Jsrujrj.i'ad hi' 

lAan, ■j;:iiii";'.;ii X: WaxshJill S:ani 

3 ' 





Heidelberg Castle, one of the most romantic of the numerous castles on 
the Rhine, presents many fine subjects for a picture. Mr. Archer has 
chosen one of the most picturesque views. The bold antiquated tower 
and the gloomy sky harmonize well together, and the very ruin extends 
to the old decayed trees with which the scene is adorned. Heidelberg, 
situated on the river Neckar, is a city of Germany, in the circle of 
the Lower Rhine. It was once the capital of the Lower Palatinate, but 
belongs now to the Grand Duchy of Baden. Few cities have suffered 
more from the calamities of war than Heidelberg. It was burnt in 1278, 
again in 1288, and in 1602 was plundered by the Bavarian army; finally, 
in 1693 the town was again pillaged and burnt, and the castle ruined. 



A WILD scene, with the effect of a passing storm, which renders, if pos- 
sible, the effect more desolate. Black-gang Chine is one of the lions of 
the Isle of Wight. The cliffs here are frequented by immense numbers 
of sea-fowl, among which the most common are puffins, razor-bills, 
gulls, cormorants, and Cornish choughs. 

The artist has introduced into his picture these birds, the principal 
inhabitants of the cliffs and shore. 




A SOLEMN and retired scene ; the dark outline of the hills, the trees, and 
the central feature of the picture, Goodrich Castle, finely contrasting with 
the sunny brilliancy of the sky. Mr. Dewint is well known to the public; 
and this picture, full of poetical feeling, is inferior to none of the nume- 
rous subjects which he has already depicted. 

The lofty towers of Goodrich Castle stand near the banks of the Wye, 
on the summit of a bold promontory, clothed with magnificent woods. 
The castle, now in ruins, was built by the Talbots soon after the Con- 
quest. In 1204 it was granted by King John to Marshall, Earl of Pem- 
broke. From an old tower, which is the most perfect part remaining, 
may be obtained a tine view of this most beautiful and romantic part of 
the county of Hereford. The view is greatly improved by the winding of 
the Wye, which nearly encircles the parish of Goodrich. 



A FINE subject for the pencil of the artist. The foreground in the plain 
is pecuharly rich and brilliant, Avhile the mountains exhibit the mistiness 
in which they are so frequently involved. 

la the county of Caernarvon, North Wales, to the south-east of the 
county town, stretching to the confines of Merionethshire, are a cluster 
of lofty hills ; they are called by the Welsh, Eryri. The highest summit 
is called Y Wyddfa, or 'The Conspicuous', and by the English, Snowdon. 
This peak, though 3567 feet above the level of the sea, is not in itself 




remarkably picturesque. The upper part of the mountain is throughout 
the year covered with a crust of snow. 

Snowdon was held as sacred by the ancient Britons as Parnassus was 
by the Greeks or Ida by the Cretans. The Welsh have always had the 
strongest attachment to it, one of the titles of the prince being " Lord of 
Snowdon." When Llewellin, Prince of Wales, was defeated and reduced 
to the last extremity, he actually rejected the offer, made to him by Ed- 
ward I., of 1000/. sterling a year, and some fine county in England, in 
exchange for the mountain. After the English monarch had effected the 
complete conquest of Wales, he held a triumphal fair upon this place, 
and adjourned to finish the joy of his victory by solemn tournaments on 
the plains of Nevin. From this period Snowdon was annexed to the 
crown, and continued to be a royal forest as late as the 29th of Elizabeth. 



A FINE picturesque view of an ancient cathedral. These are the subjects 
for which Mr. Prout is so justly celebrated. Mayence, Mainz, or Mentz, 
is the capital of the Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt, and is seated near the 
confluence of the Maine and Rhine. The population is rather above 
27,000. Agrippa constructed here some strong works to protect the left 
bank of the Rhine from the Barbarians (Germans). Germanicus after- 
wards erected a fortified work, to which he gave the name of Moguntia, 
by which name Livy the historian alludes to the town. Some Roman 
monuments still exist there. Among others, a castle, on the opposite side 
of the river, called then Castellum, is now named Cassel. " In the year 
70, Moguntia was garrisoned by the XXII. Roman Legion, which had 
been with the army under Titus at the siege of Jerusalem ; and the holy 
Crescentius, who had accompanied the troop here, is supposed to have 


been the first who, under the title of Bishop, instructed the natives of 
this part of the Rhine in the Christian rehgion." 

Trajan erected a fort on a point of land formed by the Rhine and 
Maine, which, during the reign of the Carlovingian kings, became the 
castle of Kufstein, and is now known by the name of Gustavsburg. 
Hadrian strengthened the outer works of this ancient fort, which, from its 
situation, was continually a cause of contention between the Germans 
and Romans, and in consequence of these struggles the town was eventu- 
ally destroyed. It was at length rebuilt by the Franks, and Charlemagne 
considerably improved it by the addition of various buildings. 

From the circumstance of Mayence being the seat of a metropolitan 
church and the residence of the first electors of Germany its rapid increase 
is principally owing. During the 13th and 14th centuries it became the 
great resort of the troubadours. In the 1.5th century the city arrived 
at the zenith of its celebrity, and obtained a just immortality " by the 
completion of the inestimable art of printing, by the elder Gensfleisch 
and his brother Gutenberg." Since this time it has suffered much, at 
various times, from internal faction and foreign aggression. 

The Cathedral, a prominent feature in the view, is a large Gothic 
pile, built of red stone, venerable on account of its antiquity, and dis- 
playing various styles of architecture. The most ancient part dates from 
900, and the more modern from 1000 to 1100. 




This picture, by A. G. Vickers, represents the scene enacted in the dwell- 
ing of Noma, the kinswoman of the Udaller, Magnus Troil. We cannot 
give a better idea of this sul)ject than by an extract from Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of the Pirate. 


F E 5? :5I E -.^5, 


After the reception of Magnus Troil by his kinswoman, Noma con- 
cludes her address by demanding what he may require of her. 

" 'My daughter's health,' repUed Magnus, 'which no remedies have 
been able to restore.' 

" 'Thy daughter's health,' answered Noma; 'and what is the maiden's 
ailment ? ' 

" 'The physician,' said Troil, ' must name the disease. All that I can 
tell thee of it is ' 

'"Be silent,' said Norna, interrupting him; 'I know all thou canst 
tell me, and more than thou thyself knowest. Sit down all of you ; and 
thou, maiden,' she said, addressing Minna, 'sit thou in that chair,' 
pointing to the place she had just left, ' once the seat of Giervada, at 
whose voice the stars hid their beams, and the moon herself grew pale.'" 

After throwing aside her "long dark-coloured mantle," the Reimkennar 
proceeds in the performance of the spell by which the love-sick damsel 
Minna is to be cured. This is the moment chosen by the artist, and the 
scene is represented with great fidelity. We must refer the reader, for 
the denouement, to the first chapter of the third volume of SirWalter Scott's 
interesting story of the Pirate. 



A SUBJECT simple in itself, composed with considerable skiU, and com- 
bined with great elegance and taste ; almost an ideal subject, so seldom 
do we meet with extreme beauty and refinement in subjects drawn from 
rustic life. The rude hardships and privations which the sons of our 
fishermen are early inured to, destroy, in a great measure, the elegance 
and beauty with which Nature may have originally endowed them. Tlie 
engraving is a spirited and vigorous work of art. 





This beautiful view, after the manner of Claude, is painted with a true 
feehng for the beauties of that inimitable master. The subject, a scene 
from nature, is something similar in composition to the magnificent works 
of that great master of the Italian school of landscape painting ; and, if 
possible, surpasses those wonderful compositions, derived, like the statues 
of antiquity, from the beauties of many parts. Mr. Fielding has done 
ample justice to this well-known and admired view; and the great beauty 
of his colouring is ably expressed in the harmoniously blended tints of 
the engraving. 

Tlie ponderous remains of the castle form a grand and permanent 
feature in the diversified surrounding scenery. The ruins cover a large 
tract of ground, and stretch along the brow of the perpendicular cliff, 
which forms here the bank of the Wye. 

The Romans probably occupied the site of Chepstow as a position 
commanding for many miles the only passage of the Wye ; and we may 
infer from its name that the situation was not overlooked by the Saxons. 
The town is seated partlj'^ in a deep hollow, and partly on the steep side 
of a hill. It was formerly fortified ; and the ruined walls, which were 
strengthened by round-towers, reach from the bank of the river below 
the bridge to the castle, which at one period surpassed in extent as well 
as importance any fortress in this part of Great Britain. The castle was 
defended by a moat towards the land, flanked by lofty towers. A very 
considerable space is occupied by the area, which is divided into four 
courts : the first contains the remains of the kitchens, grand hall, and 
numerous other apartments ; I'rom the second, which is now a garden, a 
passage leads into the third, which is also a garden; this leads to the fourth, 
to which the access is only through a sally-port. The characteristic 
style of the architecture is Norman. That part of Monmouthsliire in which 
the castle of Chepstow stands was formerly part of the county of Glou- 


cester ; and the territory soon after the Conquest came into the posses- 
sion of the Normans. The castle of Estrighoel, or Striguil, by which 
name Chepstow was then known, was erected by Whilhehnus Comes 
{Count William), supposed to be WilUam Fitzosborne, Earl of Hereford, 
who was killed in 1070. 



All who have read the history of Don Quixote will at once perceive that 
our artist has fully entered into the spirit of satire which animated Cer- 
vantes. To those who are unacquainted with the story we may briefly 
observe that the kneeling figure is Samson Carrasco, who is about to 
turn the credulity of Don Quixote to his own amusement. Samson Car- 
rasco is described as having all the "signs of a malicious disposition, and 
one that would delight in nothing more than in making sport for himself 
by ridiculing others, as he plainly discovered when he saw Don Quixote, 
for falling down on his knees before him, 'Admit me to kiss your honour's 
hand,' cried he, ' most noble Don Quixote ; for by the habit of St. Peter, 
which I wear, though, indeed, I have as yet taken but the four first of 
the holy orders, you are certainly one of the most renowned knights-errant 
that ever was, or ever will be, through the whole extent of the habitable 
globe. Blest may the sage Cid Hamet Benengeli be, for enriching the 
world with the history of your mighty deeds; and more than blessed that 
curious virtuoso who took care to have it translated out of the Arabic 
into our vulgar tongue, for the universal entertainment of mankind.' 
' Sir,' said Don Quixote, making him rise, ' is it then possible that my 
history is extant, and that it was a Moor, and one of the sages, that 
penned it?' " 



J. B. PYNE. 

A FINE coast scene, true to nature, and rich in effect. Swansea is a 
sea-port of considerable importance in Glamorganshire, at the distance 
of two hundred and five miles from London. The town is on the western 
side of the river Tawe, which is here navigable for ships of large burden, 
and possesses extensive quays, and every convenience for trade. In the 
summer Swansea is much frequented as a watering-place. Pottery is the 
principal article of manufacture here. The chief article furnished for ex- 
portation is coal. On an elevated spot in the middle of the town are the 
remains of the castle : the parts which now remain entire consist of a lofty 
circular tower, and a large part of the original building, surmounted by 
a parapet. It is said to have been built in 1095, by Henry Beaumont, 
Earl of Warwick, to secure his conquests in Gower. This individual 
brought over a colony of EngUsh settlers, whose descendants "remain 
here, separated by their manners and language from the native popula- 
tion, with whom they scarcely ever intermarry." Swansea Castle is the 
property of the Duke of Beaufort, who is lord of the manor of Gower. 



This is one of those complicated architectural drawings for which 
Mr. Prout is so justly celebrated. Here is truly represented the fullest 
and most correct detail harmoniously blended with light and shade. The 
silvery tone of the cathedral, one of the most beautiful in France, is 
finely expressed. Beauvais is the capital of the department of the 
Gise. Besides the cathedral, it contains several collegiate and parish 




churches. A beautiful tapestry is manufactured within the city. Beauvais 
was besieged by the English in 1443, and again in 1472 by the Duke of 
Burgundy at the head of an army of 80,000 men, but both times was 
vigorously defended and preserved. During the siege in 1472, the women 
displayed great bravery under the leadership of Jane de Hatchett. The 
portrait of this person is preserved in the Town-hall, and on the 10th of 
July in every year the women march foremost in the ranks of a proces- 
sion held on that day to commemorate their heroic defence. 



This is a highly interesting view of the scene where so many victims fell 
in the murderous conflict which has given the place a sad celebrity. The 
sombre effect in the sky is in true keeping with the lugubrious memory 
of this field of slaughter, and finely relieves the conspicuous monuments 
of the illustrious dead. In the middle distance stands preeminent the 
great tumulus, surmounted by a colossal lion, erected as a trophy of vic- 
tory. The foreground is beautifully painted, with an effect after the man- 
ner of Cuyp. 

In the memorable battle fought on these plains the 1 5th June, 1814, 
the British forces amounted to 95,500 men ; while on the French side 
there were numbered 130,000. The slaughter, from the confined nature of 
the ground, was so immense that the dead could not be numbered ; and 
the spectacle of horror which the field exhibited can never be forgotten by 
those who visited it immediately after the victory. The road between 
Waterloo and Brussels, which passes through the forest of Soigne, a di- 
stance of nine miles, was so choked up with scattered baggage, broken 
wagons, and dead horses, and at the same time almost impassable from 
the heavy rains, that it was with the greatest difficulty the wounded could 
be brought away. 





A BEAUTIFUL subjcct ! In the scenery of Switzerland are all the elements 
of the sublime ; lofty cloud-capped mountains inclosing romantic lakes 
which engender storms of cloud, through which the bursts of hght give 
an opportunity to the artist of acquiring a knowledge of the grand effects 
which are constantly occurring in this picturesque country. 

The lakes in Switzerland are numerous and highly interesting. Lun- 
gern is a small but beautiful lake in the southern part of the Canton of 
Underwalden. On the picturesque sides of this lake are many beautiful 
subjects for the painter; one of these has been chosen by our artist. 
The most considerable lakes are Constance and Geneva ; Neufchatel 
and Zurich are also large, being twenty -five miles long and four broad. 
Lucerne is about fifteen miles by three in breadth. Next to these in 
point of size are the lakes of Thun and Brientz, of Youx and Rouss on 
the confines of France, Moral, Brenne, Sempach, Zug, Wallenstadt, Lu- 
gano, and many others of inferior note. 



Paris contains innumerable subjects for the painter. Mr. Wehnert has 
selected a very striking instance of this remark. In the picture before 
us is a very accurate representation of the ancient Church of St. Germain 
L'Auxerrois, founded by St. Childebert in GOG, which was for a long period 
tlic only parish church in the northern part of Paris. Having been de- 
stroyed by the Normans, it was afterwards rebuilt about the commence- 
ment of the 11th century. During the occupation of Paris by the En- 




glish in 1423, they caused it to be repaired and adorned. The statues 
of the founder and his queen still remain in the porch of the church; and 
this edifice contained, before the revohition, many fine works of art. 
The bell of this church was the first struck as a signal for the infamous 
massacre of St. Bartholomew. 


J. W. M. TURNER, R.A. 

This celebrated artist stands unrivalled ; a perfect master of his art. In 
his innumerable works he has produced almost every effect of light and 
shade of which the face of landscape is susceptible. His pictures are full 
of truth and poetry, and he seizes with a masterly liand the most sublime 
features of nature. 

There is so much genius and knowledge of art in his pictures, that 
his engravings from them have become works of reference to many of 
his cotemporaries. 

Mr. Turner may be said to have founded a new school of landscape 
painting ; a school superior for its brilhance and originality to any other 
in the world. 

The subject of our present engraving, which Mr. Turner has furnished 
us with expressly for this work, may be considered an excellent specimen 
of his style. The scene represents Rivaulx Abbey, near Ripon in York- 
shire, one of those richly endowed monastic institutions, the deposito- 
ries of learning and science, which were formerly so numerous in this 

This Abbey, like Jedburgh and Melrose, presents a superb pile of 
buildings in ruins, and with the surrounding landscape forms an admira- 
ble subject for the artist ; and it has been treated with that skill for which 
Mr. Turner is so justly celebrated. 




Our engraving, though styled the "Red Mask," for which perhaps it 
would be appropriate, is in reality from a drawing the work of the ima- 
gination alone, and not derived from the idea of any author of romance. 

This picture is from the pencil of Mr. Cattermole, and appears to be 
one of a class of subjects in which the mind of this artist particularly 
delights. His skill and taste in depicting these Radcliffian feelings are 
very considerable. How truly delighted would Monk Lewis have been to 
see his unearthly horrors dimly shadowed out by such a congenial mind ! 

Mr. Cattermole joins to his other pictorial powers an extensive know- 
ledge of architecture, and to this circumstance we ascribe that exquisite 
taste with which all his architectural details are touched. 

The lovers of romance will be delighted with Cattermole's illustra- 
tions of the "dim caverns," "dark dungeons," and "long corridors," 
through the gloom of which the strained ej^e vainly endeavours to pene- 
trate ; and antiquarians will be highly pleased with his art displayed in 


". . . . long-drawn aisle and fretted vault," 

and they will be almost inclined to believe that they hear the 
" . . . . pealing anthem swell the note of praise." 



A RICH architectural subject, in Avhich a variety of styles are introduced, 
evincing in the painter an accurate knowledge oi' the jjicturesquc in 

:c MA.SS, 

dtnidcsiW' Tiiy ff TsmigTrTi 


Gothic architecture. Through a hold Norman arch is seen a superb en- 
trance to the choir of a cathedral. This choir is elevated on a platform, 
ascended by a flight of steps. Monks, witli all the paraphernalia of the 
Catholic worship, are seen issuing from tlie portal and descending the 
broad stairs. 

There is all that gloomy grandeur of effect in this picture which is so 
often to be met with in the numerous antiquated Continental cathedrals. 



This subject represents a scene so often to be met with in the family 
circle, in which the principal subject of the picture is seated on his 
mother's knee, and from the expression of the boy's countenance may be 
seen the pain he is enduring, whilst the anxiety depicted on the coun- 
tenances of the mother and the children in the foreground is finely ex- 
pressed by the artist. In the background the grandmother is seen pre- 
paring the remedy for the little sufferer's foot, whilst one of the boys is 
earnestly explaining to her the manner in which the accident occurred : 
the whole forming a well-composed and most effective picture, in which 
our artist, Mr. Chisholrae, has displayed considerable talent. 



This is an interesting part of the ancient Norman town of Caudebec. 
The church, which is in full light, forms, with the bold foreground, an 
extremely pleasing composition. 


Caudebec is a rich and populous trading-town in Normandy, in the 
department of the Lower Seine: the town forms the capital of the terri- 
tory of Caux. It is pleasantly situated near the foot of a mountain, not 
far from the Seine, surrounded with walls having towers. The town con- 
tains about 3000 inhabitants. The principal manufacture is a kind of 
hat made of lamb's wool and of the hair or down of ostrich's or camel's 



This is a most accurate and faitlifully deUneated subject, and yet so 
harmonious that the extraordinary detail never offends. Dover (or Dovor) 
Castle is a subject which has often exercised the pencil of our native 
artists. The bold cliff rising on the line of sea forms agreeable and cap- 
tivating features in the landscape. 

Dover Castle is situated in the fair county of Kent, opposite the French 
coast where the British Channel is narrowest, the distance being about 
twenty-three miles. Dover is a place which makes a considerable figure 
in history. It is probable the ancient Britons occupied it as a military 
post anterior to the Roman conquest. The Romans, it appears, fortified 
it, and adapted it to their system of tactics. It is said King Arthur held 
his residence here. The foundation of the present fortress is ascribed to 
Julius Caesar. 

In the Itinerary of Antoninus Dover is called Ad Portum Dubris. Its 
name is supposed to be derived from the British Dwfyrrha, signifying a 
steep place. The Saxons made themselves masters of Dover at an early 
period. William the Conqueror esteemed the castle of great importance. 
From Doomsday Book we learn that Dovere paid 18/. in the reign of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, and whoever constantly resided in the town and paid 
custom to the king was free of toll throughout England. When the Con- 
(jueror came into England the town was burnt. Dover Castle was for many 


centuries considered the key to the kingdom. Henry II. rebuilt the keep, 
and afterwards Hubert de Burgh defended it successfully, with but one 
hundred and forty men, against Lewis the Dauphin. 

Many alterations were made in the fortifications by different sove- 
reigns prior to the Commonwealth, when, during the civil war, it was 
taken by surprise by Drake with only twelve men. From this time it 
was allowed to go to decay, until the fear of a French invasion caused 
the Government to put it in a sufficient state of repair. 

The fortress occupies thirty-five acres of land, and the cliff near the 
sea is three hundred and twenty feet in height. 



A BEAUTIFUL picture from the able pencil of Mr. Chambers, who pos- 
sesses great power in representing the turbulent motion of the sea agi- 
tated by the winds. The effect of wind is very happily expressed. 

Burlington, or Bridlington, is a seaport town in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire, 208 miles from London, 37 from the city of York, and 5 from 
Flamborough Head. A portion of the town consists of a pier, extending 
some distance into the sea. The extremity of this pier is represented in 
the engraving. jThe town is an ancient place, having a considerable 
trade ; in it are the ruins of a fine church, founded in the reign of 
Henry I. The quay is fortified. 




In this view the reader will be gratified with one of those luxuriant 
scenes so frequent in the rich and fertile country of Italy. Sorrento, 
which gives the name to the surrounding country, is a seaport in the 
kingdom of Naples, at the foot of the mountain of Surrentum. The town 
is situated in the peninsula which forms the southern side of the Bay of 
Naples, and is 17 miles from that city. Sorrento is the birthplace of 
Torquato Tasso, and the see of an archbishop. 



A PLEASING, rich, and harmonious subject, in which the artistical talent 
of the painter is ably displayed. Mr. Austin's style, though in itself 
original and in some points similar to that of Dewint, is well adapted 
to pourtray the canal scenery of Belgium and Holland. 

Bruges is 8 miles from Ostend, 24 from Ghent, and 46 from Ant- 
werp, and has the advantage of numerous canals. Two hundred years 
since Bruges was in a very flourishing condition, but on account of the 
increase of trade to Amsterdam and Antwerp it has since much di- 
minished. The Church of Notre Dame, rising boldly in the distance, is 
celebrated for its elevated spire, serving as a landmark for sailors ap- 
proaching Ostend. This city has several large open spaces, of which the 
great market-square is the finest. The tombs of Charles the Brave and 
Mary of Burgundy, erected in 1550, are preserved here. Here also was 
born John of liruges, to whom the invention of oil painting is attributed. 
Tlie order of the Knights of the Golden Fleece was instituted in Bruges 
in 1430. 

w. ©:^ TTsm §m"ia©c- 



(Guy Mannering.) 


The fury of the battle, and the strife attendant on such contests, are 
here depicted with a vivid reaUty. Such scenes, arising from the temp- 
tation afforded to smuggling in Scotland, were of common occurrence 
towards the close of the last century, and allusions to them frequently 
occur in Sir Walter Scott's novel of Guy Mannering. The engraving 
after Mr. Zeiter's picture represents the affray between the smugglers 
and dragoons at Portanferry, after the burning of the Custom-houses. 
Sir Walter thus describes the scene which the artist has depicted. 

" Sounds and signs of violence were heard in front. The press be- 
came furiously agitated, while some endeavoured to defend themselves, 
others to escape ; shots were tired, and the glittering broadswords began 
to appear flashing above the heads of the rioters." — Guy Mannering, 
vol. iii. 



The extensive plain of Athens, with the celebrated ruins, the beautiful 
Acropolis, the sea and the surrounding mountains, present a magnificent 
subject for the painter. The present engraving rather represents some 
recollections of the buildings, with a few features of the landscape com- 
bined, than any actual scene. 

The picture gives a faithful idea of the beauties of the ruined Athe- 
nian architecture and the peculiar scenery of this classic and pictm'esque 


2 a 




A BEAUTIFUL picturc of a very interesting subject. The artist has given 
the view a warm sunny effect, so characteristic of the cHmate. The 
scene is one of undisturbed repose. The Lake of Nemi, a well-known 
and beautiful spot, is situated near the town of Guesana, and about 13 
miles from Rome on the road to Naples. Nemi derives its name from 
the Nemus Dianse that shaded its banks. Like the Lake of Albano, an 
extinct crater, it occupies a deep hollow in the mountains, but it is much 
inferior to Albano in extent, and tills only a part of the amphitheatre 
formed by the crater : " the remaining part with the high banks is co- 
vered with gardens and orchards, well fenced and thickly planted, form- 
ing an enchanting scene of fertility and cultivation." 

" The castle and the town of Nemi stand on the eastern side of the 
lake, on a high rock hanging over the crater." The lake with the 
beautiful scenery around its banks afford a constant source of study to 
the numerous artists who frequent Rome with a view of advancing 
themselves in their art. 








A CORRECT delineation of a well-known scene, with which many of our 
readers are doubtless acquainted. The vessels are drawn with extraor- 
dinary fidelity, and without being formal or stiff. The water appears 
broken by the fresh breeze, which, having just sprung up, has set in 
motion an outward-bound fleet. The vessel in the foreground, urged 
by the gale, seems to be bearing down with rapidity. That part of the 
Foreland which is visible conceals the lighthouse, the most useful fea- 
ture of the situation. Within the line of white chalk cliffs may be just 
perceived the pretty village of Kingsgate. 

The North Foreland, in the Isle of Thanet, is about a mile and a half 
from Ramsgate. The lighthouse stands on a point of land near the 
extremity of a chalk cliff', supposed by some to be the Canticum of 
Ptolemy. This spot is called the North Foreland to distinguish it from 
the South Foreland between Dover and Deal. The North Foreland is 
higher than most of the land hereabouts. On this point originally stood a 
house built of timber, with a large glass lantern on the top of it, in which 
a light was kept burning to direct ships to keep clear of the Goodwin 
Sands, which lie off" this point. This house was burnt down by accident 
in 1683, and for some time after, a beacon, on which a hght was hoisted, 
was made use of. About the close of the 17th century the present 
octagon building was erected ; but it was at first so clumsily lighted that 
mariners made it a ground of complaint. This defect was soon after 
remedied, and about fifty years since the tower was raised, and, with the 
new lantern, was made above 100 feet in height: in each side of the 
decagon lighthouse at the top a patent lamp is kept burning all night. 

Every British ship sailing by this Foreland pays a toll of twopence, 
and every foreign vessel fourpence, for the repair and maintenance of 
the house. 





One of those beautiful delineations of architecture for which Mr. Roberts 
is so celebrated. 

Dieppe, a well-known seaport town, is situated at the mouth of the 
river Arques, and fortified by sea and land : its shape is an irregular tri- 
angle, wdth a harbour of a semicircular form. The town contains 3000 
houses and 20,000 inhabitants. St. Jacques, the parish church, is one 
of those elaborately carved specimens of florid Gothic architecture which 
were executed about the reign of Henry VH. 

The distance from Dieppe to Brighton is about 66, and from Paris 
100 miles. The port is considered the principal station for packets 
between London and Paris. 

It was from Dieppe that William the Conqueror sailed with his troops 
when he invaded England. And in 1589 a battle Avas fought at Arques, 
four miles from Dieppe, between Henry IV. of France and the League, 
under Mayenne, in which the Duke of Mayenne was defeated. 



A CHARMING rural scene, in which the painter has skilfully embodied 
the sentiments of the poet. The landscape is well composed, and the 
cattle are drawn with a fidelity for which this artist has earned a well- 
merited reputation. The accuracy with which the poet has described 

loiiSimpkiiiX: M>m),.ll r.i.i. 


the smiling face of nature has been faithfully followed by the i)amter, wiio 
has depicted the 

'" brook, that purls along 

The vocal grove, now fretting o'er a rock. 

Now scarcely moving through a reedy pool, 

Now starting to a sudden stream, and now 

Gently diifused into a limpid plain ; 

A various group the herds and flocks compose. 

Rural confusion ! On the grassy bank 

Some ruminating lie ; whUe others stand 

Half in the flood, and, often bending, sip 

The circling surface. In the middle droops 

The strong laborious ox, of honest front. 

Which incomposed he shakes ; and from his sides 

The troublous insects lashes with his tail, 

Returning still. Amid his subjects safe. 

Slumbers the monarch-swain ; his careless arm 

Thrown round his head, on downy moss sustained." 

Thomson's Seasons. — Summer. 



A HoGARTH-LiKE picturc, fuU of truth and nature. The figures are very 
accurately drawn, and the expression is remarkably correct : the acces- 
sories are in harmony with the subject, and the light and shade is admi- 
rably arranged. 

2 c 





A SUMPTUOUS view of this splendid baronial Castle, celebrated alike for 
its romantic beauty and historical interest. 

Warwick Castle is on the S.E. side of the town of Warwick, and is 
built on a rock, to which it seems united rather by the hand of nature than 
by human art. It is supposed to have been first founded by Ethelfleda, 
daughter of King Alfred, in the year 915. 

From the period when William the Conqueror gave this fortress to 
Henry de Newburgh, it became of considerable importance in English 

For a description of this magnificent place, see page 6. 


D. COX. 

An agreeable subject, simple in its arrangement, but highly effective. 

" Furness Abbey, situated in the north-west part of Lancashire, one 
mile and a half from the town of Dalton, was once an extensive and 
wealthy monastery. The ruins stand on the bank of a small rivulet in a 
narrow and fertile vale. The situation is one of deep retirement. The 
venerable grandeur of its Gothic arches combines with the luxuriance of 
the ancient trees which surround the ruins. The glen in which the 
Abbey is situated is called the Vale of Nightshade, from its ancient title 
Bekansgill. The romantic gloom and sequestered privacy of this S})ot 
particularly adapted it to the austerities of monastic life ; and in the 



most retired part of the glen King Stephen, when Earl of Mortaign and 
Bulloign, founded, A.D. 1127, the magnificent monastery of Furness, and 
endowed it with princely wealth and almost princely authority, in which 
it was second only to Fountain's Abbey in Yorkshire. The windings of 
the glen conceal the approach to the Abbey, until a sudden bend in the 
road brings into view the northern gate of the Abbey, a beautiful Gothic 
arch, one side of which is covered with nightshade. 

" The principal features are the great northern window, a part of the 
eastern choir, with glimpses of shattered arches, and stately walls beyond, 
caught between the gaping casements. Through the gate is the entrance 
to the immediate precincts of the Abbey. This is inclosed by a stone 
wall, on which the remains of many small buildings still appear, such as 
the porter's lodge, mills, granaries, ovens and kilns. 

" The Abbey, which was formerly of such magnitude as nearly to fill 
up the breadth of the glen, is built of a pale red stone dug from the 
neighbouring rocks, now changed by time and weather to a tint of a 
dusky brown, which accords well with the hues of plants and shrubs 
that everywhere emboss the mouldering arches. The finest view of the 
ruin is on the east side, where, beyond the vast shattered frame that once 
contained a richly painted window, is seen a perspective of the choir and 
of distant arches, remains of the nave of the Abbey, closed by the woods. 
This perspective of the ruin is said to be 287 feet in length ; the walls, 
as they now stand, are 54 feet high and 5 thick. Southwards from the 
choir extend the still beautiful though broken pillars and arcades of some 
chapels, now laid open to the day, the chapter-house, the cloisters, and 
beyond these the school-house, which still possesses a roof. Of a quad- 
rangular court on the west side of the church, 334 feet long and 106 feet 
wide, but little now remains, except the foundation of a range of cloisters, 
forming its western boundary, under w'hich the monks passed in their cus- 
tomary processions. What was the belfry is now a huge mass of detached 
ruin, picturesque from the loftiness of its shattered arches and the high in- 
equahties of the ground within them, where the tower that once crowned 
this building, having fallen, lies in vast fragments, now covered with earth 
and grass, and no longer distinguishable but by the hillock they form. 

2 D 


" These are the principal features of this once magnificent Abbey. It 
was dedicated to St. Mary, and received a colony of monks from the 
monastery of Savigny in Normandy, who were called Grey monks from 
the colour of their dress. They afterwards became Cistercians, and 
remained of this order until the dissolution of the monastic orders."' — 
{Abridged from Mrs. Radcliffe's Description of Furness Abbey.) 



A VERY beautiful view of the Fish-market, Rotterdam, in this artist's 
best style. The architectural features are clearly delineated, and the 
busy figures enliven the scene. 

Rotterdam is a city and seaport of Holland, situated on the Rotter 
where it joins the Meuse. This place enjoyed the privileges of a city 
shortly after the year 1270. It was formerly considered, next to Amster- 
dam, the richest and most flourishing city of Holland on account of the 
convenience of its harbour and canals. The port of Rotterdam was more 
frequented by British traders than that of Amsterdam, because when 
vessels weighed anchor one tide brought them out to sea. 

Among the principal buildings are the Town-hall, the Bank, the East 
and West India Houses, the Arsenal, and several churches, particularly 
St. Lawrence, a view of which is given in this work. On the east side 
of the city are a large basin, a dock for building and launching for the 
service of the Admiralty and the East India Company. 

The city possesses an extensive market-place for the sale of fish, 
which is very abundant. Our engraving presents a view of this place. 
Rotterdam was the birthplace of Erasmus, whose house and statue are 
still preserved. The streets of the city are long and narrow, and the 
foot-pavement is formed of bricks. A further description of Rotterdam 
will be found in a former part of this work. See page 17. 


VOL. I. 

Subject. Artist's Name. I'ag*. 

Kelso Abbey D. Roberts 1 

St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall C. Stanfield 3 

Warwick Castle G. Cattermole 5 

Jedburgh Abbey D. Roberts 8 

View on the River Dort S. Austin 9 

Veletri J- Robins 9 

LaufFenburg G. Balmer 10 

Abbeville, France D. Roberts 11 

Composition. — Evening Thomas H. Shepherd. ... 1:5 

Scene from ' Kenilworth' J. Nash 14 

Bruges R. P. Bonnington 1.3 

Water-mill, Westmoreland G. Cattermole 16 

Church of St. Lawrence, Rotterdam G. Balmer 17 

View off the Coast of Yarmouth J. S. Cotman 18 

Melrose Abbey D. Roberts 18 

New Abbey, Kirkcudbrightshire D. Roberts 19 

Bay of Naples G. Arnold, A.R.A 20 

William Tell's Chapel, Lake of Geneva G. Cattermole 21 

Roland Grseme's First Interview with Catherine Seyton. \ t tsj ,t, •;•? 

(From Sir Walter Scott's ' Abbot'.) J " 

Hurst Castle, Hampshire Vickers 23 

Caen Cathedral D. Roberts 24 

Christopher Sly and the Hostess J. Nash 25 

Waltham Cross W. B. Clarke, Architect . . 26 

Pont Gwryd, with Snowdon in the distance J. C. Bentlet 29 

Albert of Gierstein citing the Duke of Burgundy to appear 1 ^ Cattermole ''9 

before the Vehme Gerichte J 

Wressle Castle (formerly the seat of the Northumberland "I ,y Nfkfield 30 

family) J 

The Village of Chedder in Somersetshire J. B. Ptne 31 

Quasimodo, the Hunchback of Notre Dame, communing^ p Pattfrmole 32 

with the Marble Effigies of the Cathedral J 

Mill on the Lynn, North Devon J. B. Pyne 33 

Fort Rouge, Calais D. Cox 33 

Tlie Banquet, after the Enrolment of Quentin Dur\%rd"l p Cattermole 34 

among the Scottish Archers of Louis XI J 

Greenwich Hospital J. Holland 34 

Broadstairs R- Brandard 36 

Tivoli W. Havell 37 

Sea-shore D. Cox 38 

Katze, ^ Castle on the Rhine H. Browne 38 



Subject. Artist's Name. Page. 

Romeo and Juliet J. M. Wright 39 

Llangollen C. Marshall 39 

Scarborough Castle J. C. Bentley 40 

The Admonition G. Vickers 41 

Faustus G. Cattermole 42 

Wreck — Dunstanborough Castle J. W. Carmichael 42 

Scene from ' Rob Roy' W. Kidd 43 

Old Tower, Heidelberg Castle J. Archer 45 

Black-Gang Chine R. Brandard 45 

Goodrich Castle P. Dewint 46 

A Mill on the Llanberris side of Snowdon C. Marshall 46 

Mayence on the Rhine S. Prout 47 

Noma of the Fitful Head preparing a Spell for Minna"! a p tt ao 

Fisher Boys R. Brandard 49 

Chepstow Castle, Monmouthshire Copley Fielding 50 

Don Quixote and Samson Carrasco J. W. Wright 51 

Swansea Harbour J. B. Pyne 52 

Beauvais S. Prout 52 

Plains of Waterloo T. Cooper 53 

MUl on the Lake of Lungem, Switzerland G. Balmer 54 

St. Germain I'Auxerrois E. H. Wehnert 54 

RivauLx Abbey J. W. M. Turner, R.A. . . 55 

The Red Mask G. Cattermole 56 

Monks returning from High Mass D. Roberts 56 

Tlie Cut Foot Chisholme 67 

Caudcbec C. Marshall 57 

Dover Castle R. Brandard 58 

Burlington Quay, Yorkshire G. Chambers 59 

Sorrento W. Havell 60 

Church of Notre Dame, Bruges S. Austin 60 

Attack of the Smugglers. (Guy Mannering.) F. C. Zietter 61 

View near Athens G. Barrett 61 

Lake of Nemi J. Allen 62 

North Foreland G. Chambers 63 

C^hurch of St. Jacques, Dieppe D. Roberts 64 

A Scene from Thomson's Seasons J. Fussell 64 

Village Glee-singers J. M. Wright 65 

Warwick Castle C. Marshall 66 

Fumess Abbey D. Cox 66 

The Fish-market, Rotterdam I. W. M. Turner, R.A. . . 68 

Title and Vignette C. Marshall.